Edge effects

edge effectedge habitatsedgeedge habitatedgesambitsbuffer zoneedge of a fragmentedge specialistforest edges
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.wikipedia
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Habitat fragmentation

fragmentationfragmentedforest fragmentation
Areas with small habitat fragments exhibit especially pronounced edge effects that may extend throughout the range.
Additionally, habitat fragmentation leads to edge effects.

Ecotone

ecotonesecotonaltransition
The phenomenon of increased variety of plants as well as animals at the community junction (ecotone) is also called the edge effect and is essentially due to a locally broader range of suitable environmental conditions or ecological niches.
The phenomenon of increased variety of plants as well as animals at the community junction is called the edge effect and is essentially due to a locally broader range of suitable environmental conditions or ecological niches.

Invasive species

invasiveinvasive plant speciesinvasive plant
The changes in temperature, humidity and light levels promote invasion of non-forest species, including invasive species.
For example, edge effects describe what happens when part of an ecosystem is disturbed as when land is cleared for agriculture.

Toxicodendron radicans

poison ivypoison-ivyRhus radicans
Another example of a species benefiting from the proliferation of forest edge is poison ivy.
The development of real estate adjacent to wild, undeveloped land has engendered "edge effects", enabling poison ivy to form vast, lush colonies in these areas.

Woodland edge

forest edgeforest marginforest edges
The amount of forest edge is orders of magnitude greater now in the United States than when the Europeans first began settling North America.
These edge effects mean that many species of animal prefer woodland edges to the heart of the forest, because they have both protection and light - for example tree pipits and dunnocks.

Spatial ecology

spatial structuregeographical ecologyspatial

Ecology

ecologicalecologistecologically
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.

Population ecology

populationautecologicalpopulation structure
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.

Community (ecology)

community ecologycommunitycommunities
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.

Habitat

habitatsmicrohabitatnatural habitat
In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats.

Biodiversity

diversitybiological diversitybiodiverse
As the edge effects increase, the boundary habitat allows for greater biodiversity.

Geographic range limit

range extensionsbordersgeographic ranges
Environmental conditions enable certain species of plants and animals to colonize habitat borders.

Shade tolerance

shade tolerantshade-tolerantshade-intolerant
Plants that colonize tend to be shade-intolerant and tolerant of dry conditions, such as shrubs and vines.

Desiccation tolerance

desiccationdesiccation resistanceanhydrobiotic
Plants that colonize tend to be shade-intolerant and tolerant of dry conditions, such as shrubs and vines.

Shrub

shrubssubshrubbush
Plants that colonize tend to be shade-intolerant and tolerant of dry conditions, such as shrubs and vines.

Vine

climberclimbing plantclimbers
Plants that colonize tend to be shade-intolerant and tolerant of dry conditions, such as shrubs and vines.

Mule deer

Odocoileus hemionusmuledeer
Animals that colonize tend to be those that require two or more habitats, such as white-tailed and mule deer, elk, cottontail rabbits, blue jays, and robins.

Elk

wapitiCervus canadensisAmerican elk
Animals that colonize tend to be those that require two or more habitats, such as white-tailed and mule deer, elk, cottontail rabbits, blue jays, and robins.

Cottontail rabbit

Sylvilaguscottontailcottontail rabbits
Animals that colonize tend to be those that require two or more habitats, such as white-tailed and mule deer, elk, cottontail rabbits, blue jays, and robins.

Primary production

primary productivitynet primary productivityproductivity
Animals traveling between communities can create travel lanes along borders, which in turn increases light reaching plants along the lanes and promotes primary production.

Trophic level

trophictrophic levelsmean trophic level
Increased primary production can increase numbers of herbivorous insects, followed by nesting birds and so on up the trophic levels.

Herbivore

herbivorousherbivoresherbivory