Imelda in July 2008
Marcos in 1982 during a ceremony
Imelda Marcos in 1953
Ferdinand Marcos (right) with his family in the 1920s
Imelda Romualdez-Marcos with former President Ferdinand Marcos and family during the 1965 inauguration
Imelda Marcos at the Bataan Death March Memorial
Ferdinand Marcos being conferred with a Doctor Laws, honoris causa degree during the investiture of the first Filipino president of Central Philippine University, Rex. D. Drilon, on April 21, 1967.
Lyndon B. Johnson and Imelda Marcos dancing
Ferdinand Marcos as a soldier in the 1940s
Meeting of the Marcoses and the Nixons in 1969 at the Malacañang Palace
Ferdinand Marcos is sworn into his first term on December 30, 1965.
Imelda Marcos features prominently in protest art displayed in the lobby of the Bantayog ng mga Bayani Museum, which documents the events of the Marcos Dictatorship and "honors the heroes and martyrs that fought the regime".
The leaders of some of the SEATO nations in front of the Congress Building in Manila, hosted by Marcos on October 24, 1966
President Marcos (left) and his wife Imelda (center) meet with US President Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in Manila in October 1966.
Marcos with Japanese Emperor Hirohito in 1966
Ferdinand Marcos takes the Oath of Office for a second term before Chief Justice Roberto Concepcion on December 30, 1969.
Richard Nixon with the Marcos family in 1969
September 24, 1972, issue of the Sunday edition of the Philippine Daily Express
Imperial Japanese Army soldier Hiroo Onoda offering his military sword to Marcos on the day of his surrender on March 11, 1974
Ferdinand Marcos with US Secretary of State George Shultz, 1982
President Ferdinand E. Marcos in Washington in 1983
Marcos at the North–South Summit on International Cooperation and Development in Cancun alongside other world leaders including I. Gandhi, F. Mitterrand, R. Reagan, M. Thatcher, K. Waldheim, Zhao Ziyang; October 23, 1981
Corazon Aquino, widow of the assassinated opposition leader Benigno Aquino Jr., takes the Oath of Office on February 25, 1986
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos at the White House with US President Ronald Reagan in 1982
The body of Ferdinand Marcos was stored in a refrigerated crypt at the Ferdinand E. Marcos Presidential Center in Batac, Ilocos Norte until 2016.
Students of the Ateneo de Manila University along Katipunan Avenue protesting against the burial of Marcos insisting that the former president is not a hero, but a dictator
Ferdinand Marcos in Washington, 1983
A 1999 view of the San Fernando segment of North Luzon Expressway, one of Marcos's infrastructure projects
San Juanico Bridge connecting Leyte and Samar
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Johnsons in 1966
Ferdinand and Imelda Marcos with the Nixons in 1969
Marcos greeting Robert Muldoon on the latter's official visit to the Philippines, 1980. New Zealand was a valuable strategic partner for the country in the last years of Marcos' rule.

The term "edifice complex" was coined in the 1970s to describe Philippine First Lady Imelda Marcos' practice of using publicly funded construction projects as political and election propaganda.

- Edifice complex

She is the widow of former president Ferdinand Marcos and the mother of current president Ferdinand Marcos Jr.

- Imelda Marcos

During her husband's 21-year rule, she ordered the construction of many grandiose architectural projects, using public funds and "in impossibly short order" – a propaganda practice, which eventually came to be known as her "edifice complex".

- Imelda Marcos

While earlier use of the term elsewhere in the world has been suggested, the term was independently coined by Behn Cervantes to criticise the construction of the Cultural Center of the Philippines during the buildup to the 1969 presidential election campaign, during which Imelda Marcos' husband Ferdinand Marcos was running for a then-unprecedented second term as President of the Philippines.

- Edifice complex

His wife, Imelda Marcos, made infamous in her own right by the excesses that characterized her and her husband's conjugal dictatorship, is the source of the term "Imeldific".

- Ferdinand Marcos

Among the major projects of the first term was the construction of the Cultural Center of the Philippines complex, considered one of the earliest examples of what would come to be known as the Marcoses' edifice complex.

- Ferdinand Marcos
Imelda in July 2008

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Cultural Center of the Philippines

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Government-owned and controlled corporation established to preserve, develop and promote arts and culture in the Philippines.

Government-owned and controlled corporation established to preserve, develop and promote arts and culture in the Philippines.

The Tanghalang Pambansa in 2012.
CCP Complex from the air.
The Tanghalang Maria Makiling at the National Arts Center in Los Baños
The façade of the Angelo King Center for the Performing Arts

The CCP was established through Executive Order No. 30 s. 1966 by President Ferdinand Marcos.

In the meantime in 1965, Imelda Marcos at a proclamation rally in Cebu for her husband's bid for the Presidency, expressed her desire to build a national theater.

The financial and human costs of constructing these buildings, in a time of widespread poverty and corruption, was seen as symptomatic of the First Lady's edifice complex, a charge Imelda has nevertheless welcomed in her later years.

The San Juanico Bridge, view from Samar, towards Leyte

San Juanico Bridge

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Part of the Pan-Philippine Highway and stretches from Samar to Leyte across the San Juanico Strait in the Philippines.

Part of the Pan-Philippine Highway and stretches from Samar to Leyte across the San Juanico Strait in the Philippines.

The San Juanico Bridge, view from Samar, towards Leyte
Aerial view of the bridge in 2012
The San Juanico Bridge at night

Constructed during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos through Japanese Official Development Assistance loans, it has a total length of 2.16 km—the second longest bridge spanning a body of seawater in the Philippines after Cebu-Cordova Bridge.

Marcos built the bridge as a personal gift to his wife Imelda.

The bridge's design reflected the aesthetic of other infrastructure projects associated with what has been called the Marcoses' "edifice complex" —described by architectural historian Gerard Lico as "an obsession and compulsion to build edifices as a hallmark of greatness".

The Coconut Palace

Coconut Palace

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Government building located in the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex in Manila, Philippines.

Government building located in the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex in Manila, Philippines.

The Coconut Palace

It was commissioned in 1978 by former First Lady Imelda Marcos as a government guest house and offered to Pope John Paul II during the Papal visit to the Philippines in 1981 but the Pope refused to stay there because it was too opulent given the level of poverty in the Philippines.

Its construction is sometimes associated with Mrs. Marcos' edifice complex, a term popularized by an architectural historian as the "obsession and compulsion to build edifices as a hallmark of greatness or as a signifier of national prosperity."

Pangasinan Room, Ferdinand Marcos' room