Edinburgh Castle

EdinburghCastleOne O'Clock GunScottish National War MemorialCastle of EdinburghCastle Rockcivil warLang SiegeAnglescastle esplanade
Edinburgh Castle (Caisteal Dhùn Éideann) is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock.wikipedia
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Scottish National War Memorial

National War MemorialWar Memorial
The castle also houses the Scottish regalia, known as the Honours of Scotland and is the site of the Scottish National War Memorial and the National War Museum of Scotland.
The Scottish National War Memorial is located in Edinburgh Castle and commemorates Scottish soldiers, and those serving with Scottish regiments, who died in the two world wars and more recent conflicts.

Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo

Edinburgh Military TattooMilitary Tattoo2008 Edinburgh Military Tattoo
As the backdrop to the Edinburgh Military Tattoo during the annual Edinburgh Festival the castle has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh and of Scotland.
The Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo is an annual series of military tattoos performed by British Armed Forces, Commonwealth and international military bands, and artistic performance teams on the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle in the capital of Scotland.

Castle Rock (Edinburgh)

Castle RockCastle HillCastlehill
Edinburgh Castle (Caisteal Dhùn Éideann) is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock.
Castle Rock is a volcanic plug in the middle of Edinburgh upon which Edinburgh Castle sits.

Arthur's Seat

Arthur’s SeatDunsapie Hillhill
Excavations at nearby Dunsapie Hill, Duddingston, Inveresk and Traprain Law had revealed relatively large settlements and it was supposed that these sites had been chosen in preference to the Castle Rock.
It is situated just to the east of the city centre, about 1 mi to the east of Edinburgh Castle.

St Margaret's Chapel, Edinburgh

St Margaret's Chapelsmall chapelSt. Margaret's Chapel
The most notable exceptions are St Margaret's Chapel from the early 12th century, which is regarded as the oldest building in Edinburgh, the Royal Palace and the early-16th-century Great Hall, although the interiors have been much altered from the mid-Victorian period onwards.
St Margaret's Chapel, in Edinburgh Castle, is the oldest surviving building in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Holyrood Palace

HolyroodPalace of HolyroodhouseHolyrood House
Around the end of the fifteenth century, King James IV (r.1488–1513) built Holyroodhouse, by the abbey, as his principal Edinburgh residence, and the castle's role as a royal home subsequently declined.
Located at the bottom of the Royal Mile in Edinburgh, at the opposite end to Edinburgh Castle, Holyrood Palace has served as the principal residence of the Kings and Queens of Scots since the 16th century, and is a setting for state occasions and official entertaining.

Migliorino Ubaldini

Spur, the outer fortificationUbaldini; Migliorino
It may have been designed by Migliorino Ubaldini, an Italian engineer from the court of Henry II of France, and was said to have the arms of France carved on it. James V's widow, Mary of Guise, acted as regent from 1554 until her death at the castle in 1560.
He designed new fortifications at the entrances of Edinburgh Castle, Dunbar Castle, and possibly the walled town of Leith.

Marian civil war

civil warcivil war in Scotlandfought a civil war
Intermittent civil war continued between the supporters of the two monarchs, and in April 1571 Dumbarton Castle fell to "the King's men".
Edinburgh Castle, which was garrisoned in her name, became the focus of the conflict and surrendered only after an English intervention in May 1573.

Leith

Leith DocksLeith, ScotlandSouth Leith
Douglas's party disguised themselves as merchants from Leith bringing supplies to the garrison.
When the large French garrison stationed in Leith was attacked by Scottish Protestant lords, reinforced by troops and artillery sent from England, Mary of Guise was forced to shut herself in Edinburgh Castle.

Stirling Castle

StirlingChapel RoyalCastle
He was forced to sign the Treaty of Falaise to secure his release, in return for surrendering Edinburgh Castle, along with the castles of Berwick, Roxburgh and Stirling, to the English King, Henry II.
Tradition suggests that St Monenna founded a chapel here, as she is said to have done at Edinburgh Castle, although it is now thought that the legend of Monenna results from a later confusion of early Christian figures, including Modwenna and Moninne.

Saint Margaret of Scotland

MargaretQueen MargaretSt Margaret
Fordun describes his widow, the future Saint Margaret, as residing at the "Castle of Maidens" when she is brought news of his death in November 1093.
According to the Vita S. Margaritae (Scotorum) Reginae (Life of St. Margaret, Queen (of the Scots)), attributed to Turgot of Durham, she died at Edinburgh Castle in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1093, merely days after receiving the news of her husband's death in battle.

William Kirkcaldy of Grange

Sir William Kirkcaldy of GrangeKirkcaldyKirkcaldy of Grange
Edinburgh Castle was initially handed by its Captain, James Balfour, to the Regent Moray, who had forced Mary's abdication and now held power in the name of the infant King James VI. Shortly after the Battle of Langside, in May 1568, Moray appointed Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange Keeper of the Castle.
Sir William Kirkcaldy of Grange (c. 1520 –3 August 1573) was a Scottish politician and soldier who fought for the Scottish Reformation but ended his career holding Edinburgh castle on behalf of Mary, Queen of Scots and was hanged at the conclusion of a long siege.

Mons Meg

The first known purchase of a gun was in 1384, and the "great bombard" Mons Meg was delivered to Edinburgh in 1457.
Mons Meg is a medieval bombard in the collection of the Royal Armouries, but on loan to Historic Scotland and located at Edinburgh Castle in Scotland.

Volcanic plug

volcanic neckpluglava plug
The castle stands upon the plug of an extinct volcano, which is estimated to have risen about 350 million years ago during the lower Carboniferous period.
In the United Kingdom, two examples of a building on a volcanic plug are the Castle Rock in Edinburgh, Scotland, and Deganwy Castle, Wales.

Battle of Flodden

FloddenFlodden FieldFlodden campaign
Their output included guns for the Scottish flagship, the "Great Michael", and the "Seven Sisters", a set of cannon captured by the English at Flodden in 1513.
On 18 August, five cannon brought down from Edinburgh Castle to the Netherbow Port at St Mary's Wynd for the invasion set off towards England dragged by borrowed oxen.

Honours of Scotland

Regalia of ScotlandScottish Crown JewelsScottish regalia
The castle also houses the Scottish regalia, known as the Honours of Scotland and is the site of the Scottish National War Memorial and the National War Museum of Scotland.
After the Act of Union, the two parliaments having been dissolved, the Parliament of Great Britain sat in London; the Honours of Scotland, having no symbolic role in the unified British Parliament, were locked away in a chest at Edinburgh Castle.

History of Scotland

Scottish historyScotlandhistory
The Orygynale Cronykil of Andrew of Wyntoun (c. 1350 – c. 1423), an early source for Scottish history, names "Ebrawce" (Ebraucus), a legendary King of the Britons, as having "byggyd [built] Edynburgh".
In Scotland the regents fought a civil war on behalf of James VI against his mother's supporters.

James VI and I

James IJames VIKing James I
In 1565, the Queen made an unpopular marriage with Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and the following year, in a small room of the Palace at Edinburgh Castle, she gave birth to their son James, who would later be King of both Scotland and England.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.

William Crichton, 1st Lord Crichton

William CrichtonSir William CrichtonChancellor Crichton
From 1437, Sir William Crichton was Keeper of Edinburgh Castle, and soon after became Chancellor of Scotland.
Upon his return he was appointed governor of Edinburgh Castle, Master of the Royal Household and by 1435 Sheriff of Edinburgh.

Traprain Law

Traprain TreasureDounprenderlawDunpelder
Excavations at nearby Dunsapie Hill, Duddingston, Inveresk and Traprain Law had revealed relatively large settlements and it was supposed that these sites had been chosen in preference to the Castle Rock.

Edinburgh town walls

city walltown wallscity walls
Expecting the English to press their advantage, the Scots hastily constructed a town wall around Edinburgh and augmented the castle's defences.
Edinburgh Castle, on its rocky outcrop, defended the western approach.

Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven

Alexander LeslieEarl of LevenLeslie
The Covenanters, led by Alexander Leslie, captured Edinburgh Castle after a short siege, although it was restored to Charles after the Peace of Berwick in June the same year.
Born illegitimate and raised as a foster child, he subsequently advanced to the rank of a Swedish Field Marshal, and in Scotland became Lord General in command of the Army of the Covenanters, privy councillor, captain of Edinburgh Castle, Lord Balgonie and Earl of Leven.

Crag and tail

cragcragsCrag-and-tail
Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation.
The Castle Rock in Edinburgh, Scotland, the rock on which Edinburgh Castle stands

James IV of Scotland

James IVKing James IVKing James IV of Scotland
Around the end of the fifteenth century, King James IV (r.1488–1513) built Holyroodhouse, by the abbey, as his principal Edinburgh residence, and the castle's role as a royal home subsequently declined.
He granted the Incorporation of Surgeons and Barbers of Edinburgh (later the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh) a royal charter in 1506, turned Edinburgh Castle into one of Scotland's foremost gun foundries, and welcomed the establishment of Scotland's first printing press in 1507.

New Town, Edinburgh

New TownEdinburgh's New TownEdinburgh's Second New Town
The Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, a World Heritage Site inscribed by UNESCO in 1995, is described as "dominated by a medieval fortress".
Its most famous street is Princes Street, facing Edinburgh Castle and the Old Town across the geographical depression of the former Nor Loch.