Edirne

AdrianopleOdrinAdrianopolisAdrianopoleHadrianopolis in HaemimontoHadrianopolisAdrianople (Edirne)HadrianopleUscudamaAdrianopol
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis; ; Αδριανούπολη; Одрин; founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.wikipedia
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Fall of Constantinople

conquest of Constantinoplesiege of ConstantinopleConstantinople
Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922.
After conquering the city, Sultan Mehmed transferred the capital of the Ottoman State from Edirne to Constantinople and established his court there.

Names of European cities in different languages (E–H)

alternative namesnames in other languagesother names
Одрин, Edrenë, Odrin and Једрене, are adapted forms of the name Hadrianopolis or of its Turkish version; see also its other names.

Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922.
With the transfer of the capital from Edirne (formerly Adrianople) to Constantinople, the new state was declared as the successor and continuation of the Roman Empire.

Odrysian kingdom

OdrysianOdrysiansOdrysae
It was the capital of the Bessi, or of the Odrysians.
A capital was the city of Odryssa (assumed to be Uscudama, modern Edirne), as inscribed on coins.

Orestias

*
In Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza).
Orestias was an ancient Greek settlement next to the Maritsa (or Evros) river, near or at the site of present-day Edirne, and close to the current border between Turkey and Greece.

Bulgaria

BULBulgarianRepublic of Bulgaria
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis; ; Αδριανούπολη; Одрин; founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Sultan Murad I took Adrianople from the Byzantines in 1362; Sofia fell in 1382, followed by Shumen in 1388.

Maritsa

EvrosEvros RiverMaritsa River
In Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza).
It has its origin in the Rila Mountains in Western Bulgaria, flowing southeast between the Balkan and Rhodope Mountains, past Plovdiv and Parvomay (where the Mechka and the Kayaliyka join it) to Edirne, Turkey.

Battle of Adrianople (1205)

Battle of AdrianopleAdrianople (1205), Battle ofa major defeat at Adrianople
During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205).
The Battle of Adrianople occurred around Adrianople on April 14, 1205 between Bulgarians, Vlachs and Cumans under Tsar Kaloyan of Bulgaria, and Crusaders under Baldwin I, who only months before had been crowned Emperor of Constantinople, allied with Venetians under Doge Enrico Dandolo.

Krum

Krum of BulgariaKhan KrumKroum
In 813, the city was temporarily seized by Khan Krum of Bulgaria who moved its inhabitants to the Bulgarian lands north of the Danube.
During his reign the Bulgarian territory doubled in size, spreading from the middle Danube to the Dnieper and from Odrin to the Tatra Mountains.

Valens

Emperor ValensFlavius Julius ValensFlavius Valens
Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378).
Both emperors were briefly ill, delaying them in Constantinople, but as soon as they recovered, the two Augusti travelled together through Adrianople and Naissus to Mediana, where they divided their territories.

Battle of Adrianople

AdrianopleBattle of Adrianople (378)*
Licinius was defeated there by Constantine I in 323, and Emperor Valens was killed by the Goths in 378 during the Battle of Adrianople (378).
The battle took place in the vicinity of Adrianople, in the Roman province of Thracia (modern Edirne in European Turkey).

Edirne Province

EdirneProvince of EdirneEdirne Province, Turkey
Edirne, historically known as Adrianople (Hadrianopolis; ; Αδριανούπολη; Одрин; founded by the Roman emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement named Uskudama), is a city in the northwestern Turkish province of Edirne in the region of East Thrace, close to Turkey's borders with Greece and Bulgaria.
Edirne is the capital of the province, notable for serving as the third capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1363 to 1453.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
Edirne served as the third capital city of the Ottoman Empire from 1369 to 1453, before Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) became the empire's fourth and final capital between 1453 and 1922. In 1361, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad I invaded Thrace.
Following this successful test, work on the first Turkish telegraph line (Istanbul-Edirne-Şumnu) began on 9 August 1847.

Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed IIMehmet IISultan Mehmed II
Mehmed the Conqueror (Sultan Mehmed II) was born in Adrianople, where he fell under the influence of some Hurufis dismissed by Taş Köprü Zade in the Şakaiki Numaniye as "Certain accursed ones of no significance", who were burnt as heretics by a certain Mahmud Pasha.
Mehmed II was born on 30 March 1432, in Edirne, then the capital city of the Ottoman state.

Theodore Branas

In 1206 Adrianople and its territory was given to the Byzantine aristocrat Theodore Branas as a hereditary fief by the Latin regime.
Under the Latin regime he was given the title Caesar and in 1206 he became governor and lord of Adrianople.

Tundzha

TuncaTundzha RiverTunca River
In Greek mythology, Orestes, son of king Agamemnon, built this city as Orestias, at the confluence of the Tonsus (Toundja) and the Ardiscus (Arda) with the Hebrus (Maritza).
The Tundzha (Тунджа, Tunca, Τόνζος) is a river in Bulgaria and Turkey and the most significant tributary of the Maritsa, emptying into it on Turkish territory near Edirne.

Murad I

Murat ISultan Murad IMurad
In 1361, the Ottoman Empire under Sultan Murad I invaded Thrace.
Murad I conquered Adrianople, renamed it to Edirne, and in 1363 made it the new capital of the Ottoman Sultanate.

Despotate of Epirus

EpirusDespot of EpirusEpirote
Theodore Komnenos, Despot of Epirus, took possession of it in 1227, but three years later was defeated at Klokotnitsa by Emperor Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria.
Through a policy of aggressive expansion under Theodore Komnenos Doukas the Despotate of Epirus also briefly came to incorporate central Macedonia, with the establishment of the Empire of Thessalonica in 1224, and Thrace as far east as Didymoteicho and Adrianopolis, and was on the verge of recapturing Constantinople and restoring the Byzantine Empire before the Battle of Klokotnitsa in 1230 where he was defeated by the Bulgarian Empire.

Bessi

BessianBessoiBiessi
It was the capital of the Bessi, or of the Odrysians.
Mommsen says the capital of the Bessi was Uscudama (now Edirne) in modern Turkey but the real place seems to have been Bessapara, today Sinitovo near Pazardzhik, Bulgaria.

Rumelia Eyalet

RumeliaRumeli EyaletEyalet of Rumelia
Adrianople was a sanjak centre during the Ottoman period and was bound to, successively, the Rumeli Eyalet and Silistre Eyalet before becoming a provincial capital of the Eyalet of Edirne at the beginning of the 19th century; until 1878, the Eyalet of Adrianople comprised the sanjaks of Edirne, Tekfurdağı, Gelibolu, Filibe, and İslimye.
For most of its history it was also the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).

Bahá'u'lláh

Baha'u'llahBahá’u’lláhBaha'ullah
Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, lived in Edirne from 1863 to 1868.
Bahá'u'lláh faced further imprisonment under Ottoman authorities, initially in Edirne, and ultimately to the prison city of Acre (present-day Israel), where he spent his final 24 years of life.

List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia

Greek colonies in ThraceList of ancient Cities in ThraceList of cities in Thrace and Dacia
The city was (re)founded eponymously by the Roman Emperor Hadrian on the site of a previous Thracian settlement known as Uskadama, Uskudama, Uskodama or Uscudama.

Bulgarian Empire

BulgariaBulgarianmedieval Bulgaria
During the existence of the Latin Empire of Constantinople, the Crusaders were decisively defeated by the Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205).
During Krum’s reign in the early 9th century Bulgarian territory doubled in size, spreading from the middle Danube to the Dnieper and from Odrin to the Tatra Mountains.

Mehmed IV

Mehmed IV, the HunterMehmet IVSultan Mehmed IV
Sultan Mehmed IV left the palace in Constantinople and died in Adrianople in 1693.
He subsequently retired to Edirne, where he resided until his natural death in 1693.

Plovdiv

Plovdiv, BulgariaPhilippopolisFilibe
Adrianople was a sanjak centre during the Ottoman period and was bound to, successively, the Rumeli Eyalet and Silistre Eyalet before becoming a provincial capital of the Eyalet of Edirne at the beginning of the 19th century; until 1878, the Eyalet of Adrianople comprised the sanjaks of Edirne, Tekfurdağı, Gelibolu, Filibe, and İslimye.
The Odrysian capital Odryssa (, ODRYFA ) is suggested to have been modern Plovdiv by numismatic research or Odrin.