Franjo Hanaman (seated) and Alexander Just
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park
Right an Just–Hanaman light-bulb, Budapest, 1906.
A glowing vintage light bulb of "ST" shape

Croatian inventor, engineer, and chemist, who gained world recognition for inventing the world's first applied electric light-bulb with a metal filament (tungsten) with his assistant Alexander Just, independently of his contemporaries.

- Franjo Hanaman

In 1904 a tungsten filament was invented by Austro-Hungarians Alexander Just and Franjo Hanaman, and was more efficient and longer-lasting than the carbonized bamboo filament used previously.

- Edison light bulb
Franjo Hanaman (seated) and Alexander Just

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A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.

Incandescent light bulb

Electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows.

Electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows.

A 230-volt incandescent light bulb with a medium-sized E27 (Edison 27 mm) male screw base. The filament is visible as the mostly horizontal line between the vertical supply wires.
A scanning electron microscope image of the tungsten filament of an incandescent light bulb
Elaborate light in Denver, Colorado
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park
Alexander Lodygin on 1951 Soviet postal stamp
Carbon filament lamps, showing darkening of bulb
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan
Historical plaque at Underhill, the first house to be lit by electric lights
Comparison of Edison, Maxim, and Swan bulbs, 1885
Edison carbon filament lamps, early 1880s
Thomas Alva Edison
by Thomas Edison for an improved electric lamp, 27 January 1880
Hanaman (left) and Just (right), the inventors of the tungsten bulbs
Hungarian advertising of the Tungsram-bulb from 1906. This was the first light bulb that used a filament made from tungsten instead of carbon. The inscription reads: wire lamp with a drawn wire – indestructible.
Spectrum of an incandescent lamp at 2200 K, showing most of its emission as invisible infrared light.
Xenon halogen lamp with an E27 base, which can replace a non-halogen bulb
Thermal image of an incandescent bulb. 22–175 °C = 71–347 °F.
Spectral power distribution of a 25 W incandescent light bulb.
Destruction of a lamp filament due to air penetration
The 1902 tantalum filament light bulb was the first one to have a metal filament. This one is from 1908.
Close-up of a tungsten filament inside a halogen lamp. The two ring-shaped structures left and right are filament supports.
Incandescent light bulbs come in a range of shapes and sizes.
A package of four 60-watt light bulbs
Left to right: MR16 with GU10 base, MR16 with GU5.3 base, MR11 with GU4 or GZ4 base
40-watt light bulbs with standard E10, E14 and E27 Edison screw base
The double-contact bayonet cap on an incandescent bulb
The Centennial Light is the longest-lasting light bulb in the world.
Various lighting spectra as viewed in a diffraction grating. Upper left: fluorescent lamp, upper right: incandescent bulb, lower left: white LED, lower right: candle flame.

They conclude that Edison's version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve (by use of the Sprengel pump) and a high resistance that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable.

On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No.