Edo period

Tokugawa Ieyasu, first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate
Bird's-eye view of Nagasaki bay, with the island Dejima at mid-left (1820)
The San Juan Bautista is represented in Claude Deruet's painting of Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome in 1617, as a galleon with Hasekura's flag (red manji on orange background) on the top mast.
Itinerary and dates of the travels of Hasekura Tsunenaga
The house of the merchant (Fukagawa Edo Museum )
Social classes during the Edo period (Tokugawa shogunate).
Scaled pocket plan of Edo
A set of three ukiyo-e prints depicting Osaka's bustling shipping industry. by Gansuitei Yoshitoyo. 1854–1859.
Tokugawa coinage: Ōban, Koban, Ichibuban (1601-1695).
Nihonbashi Fish Market Prosperity (Edo period) by Utagawa Kuniyasu
Terakoya, private educational school
Wadokei, Japanese-made clockwatch, 18th century
Kaitai Shinsho, Japan's first treatise on Western anatomy, published in 1774
Karakuri puppet Moji-kaki doll made by Tanaka Hisashige. Using mechanical power, a puppet dips a brush into ink and writes a character on paper. 19th century
Red and White Plum Blossoms by Ogata Kōrin, 1712-1716
Mounting for wakizashi decorated with lacquer of maki-e technique. 18th century
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, full-colour ukiyo-e woodblock print, Hokusai, c. 1829–1832
Outer kimono for a young woman (uchikake), 1840–1870, Khalili Collection of Kimono
Dai-Roku Daiba (第六台場) or "No. 6 Battery", one of the original Edo-era battery islands
One of the cannons of Odaiba, now at the Yasukuni Shrine. 80-pound bronze, bore: 250mm, length: 3830mm
Matthew Calbraith Perry
Landing of Commodore Perry, Officers and Men of the Squadron To meet the Imperial Commissioners at Kurihama Yokosuka March 8th, 1854
Tokugawa Yoshinobu in later life
Kanrin Maru, Japan's first screw-driven steam warship, 1855
Samurai in western clothing of the Tokugawa Shogunate Army (1866).
Reading stand with Mt. Yoshino, decorated with lacquer of maki-e technique. 18th century
Ukiyo-e based on kabuki actors became popular. Ichikawa Danjūrō V in the popular kabuki play Shibaraku, by Utagawa Kunimasa, 1796
Ukiyo-e depicting Sushi, by Hiroshige
A boarding place for a ferry on the Miya River, which is crowded with people visiting Ise Grand Shrine. by Hiroshige
{{lang|ja-Latn|Inro}} and {{lang|ja-Latn|Netsuke}}, 18th century
Ladies fashion in 1700s by Utagawa Toyokuni

Period between 1603 and 1867 in the history of Japan, when Japan was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyo.

- Edo period

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Former name of Tokyo.

Famous places of Edo in 1803
Scroll depicting the Great Fire of Meireki
Map of Edo in the 1840s
Nihonbashi in Edo, ukiyo-e print by Hiroshige
Typical housing district in backstreets.
Chōnin-room exhibit at the Fukagawa Edo Museum

The era of Tokugawa rule in Japan from 1603 to 1868 is known eponymously as the Edo period.

Japanese art

Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, ceramics, origami, and more recently manga and anime.

Middle Jōmon vase; circa 3000-2000 BCE
Jar; middle to late Jomon period; 35th-11th century BCE
Dogū figurine from the site Ebisuda of Ōsaki, Miyagi prefecture (1000–400 BCE)
Tomb of Emperor Nintoku located in Sakai, Japan. The keyhole-like tomb is 486m long, 305m wide at the bottom and 245m in diameter.
A dragon-head pitcher with Pegasus pattern incised, gilded bronze with silver, Asuka period, 7th century, former Horyu-ji Temple treasures
Taizokai (womb realm) Mandala on a silk hanging scroll, 9th century CE
Taishakuten Śakra, 839, Tō-ji
Byōdō-in Phoenix Hall, Uji, Kyoto
"YUGIRI" of Genji Monogatari Emaki
Gilt bronze reliquary in openwork (kondō sukashibari sharitō)
Detail of Muchaku at Kōfuku-ji, Nara by Unkei
Karesansui of Ryōan-ji, Kyoto
Himeji Castle, built in 1580-1609
Cypress Trees Byōbu, folding screen by Kanō Eitoku, 1590
Wind God and Thunder God, Tawaraya Sōtatsu, 17th century
Circuit style Japanese garden Kōraku-en in Okayama, begun in 1700
Three Beauties of the Present Day, by Utamaro, c. 1793
The print Red Fuji from Hokusai's series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Sudden Shower at the Atake Bridge, Hiroshige, 1856
Garden of Murin-an, designed by Jihei Ogawa in 1894–1898
Mr Kume [Kume Keiichiro], by Kuroda Seiki, Kuroda Kinenkan
Flower and bird pattern vase, by Namikawa Yasuyuki
Maki-e Fuji Tagonoura, Shibata Zeshin, 1872
Koro, silver decorated with precious metals and rock crystal, 1890
Basket of Flowers. circa 1900, Meiji period. Khalili Collection of Japanese Art.
Earthenware bowl by Yabu Meizan, circa 1910
A composite imaginary view of Japan: silk textile artwork
Calligraphy of Bodhidharma, "Zen points directly to the human heart, see into your nature and become Buddha", Hakuin Ekaku, 17th century
"Fujisan" white Raku ware tea bowl (chawan) by Hon'ami Kōetsu, Edo period (National Treasure)
A Yayoi period dōtaku bell, 3rd century CE
Bronze mirror excavated in Tsubai-otsukayama kofun, Yamashiro, Kyoto
Carmaic jar from the Yayoi period
Various ritual Yayoi potteries from Yoshinogari Site
Yayoi storage jar from 500 BCE - 200 CE
Pagoda and Kondō at Hōryū-ji, 8th century
Hokkedō at Tōdai-ji, 8th century
Ko-Kutani (old Kutani) five colours Iroe type sake ewer with bird and flower design in overglaze enamel, Edo period, 17th century
Ko-Imari dish, 1700–1740
{{lang|ja-Latn|Inro}} and {{lang|ja-Latn|Netsuke}}, 18th century
Writing lacquer box with Irises at Yatsuhashi, by Ogata Kōrin. National Treasure
Byōbu Dragon and tiger (竜虎図) left side, 1895, by Hashimoto Gahō
Byōbu Dragon and tiger right side, 1895, by Hashimoto Gahō
Manga style.
Kawaii fashion found in Tokyo, Japan
Osaka Kawaii à Japan Expo 2014.
Flo Kawaii Stickers.

With the rise of popular culture in the Edo period, a style of woodblock prints became a major form and its techniques were fine-tuned to produce colorful prints.


Samurai in armor in the 1860s; hand-colored photograph by Felice Beato
Kofun period helmet, gilt copper, 5th century, Ise Province
In the noh drama Sanjō Kokaji, the 10th-century blacksmith Munechika, aided by a kitsune (fox spirit), forges the tachi (samurai sword) Ko-Gitsune Maru.
The Gosannen War in the 11th century.
Heiji rebellion in 1159.
Samurai on horseback, wearing ō-yoroi armor, carrying a bow (yumi) and arrows in an yebira quiver
Samurai ō-yoroi armor, Kamakura period. Tokyo National Museum.
Men and women engaged in battle (16th century illustration).
Samurai of the Shōni clan gather to defend against Kublai Khan's Mongolian army during the first Mongol Invasion of Japan, 1274
Samurai Takezaki Suenaga of the Hōjō clan (right) defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left) at the Battle of Torikai-Gata, 1274
Samurai boarding ships of the Second Mongolian invasion fleet, killing the Mongolian soldiers aboard, 1281.
Himeji Castle, built from 1333 by the samurai Akamatsu Norimura of the Akamatsu clan.
A hatomune dou from the 16th century, the historic armor was once used by Kenshin Uesugi, one of the most powerful daimyōs of the Sengoku period.
Battle of Nagashino (1575)
Korean and Chinese soldiers assault the Japanese-built fortress at Ulsan during the Japanese invasions of Korea, 1597
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who would later command the invasion of Korea, leads a small group assaulting the castle on Mount Inaba. Print by Tsukioka Yoshitoshi.
The Battle of Sekigahara, known as "Japan's decisive battle" (天下分け目の戦い, Tenka wakeme no tatakai'')
Samurai were the ruling class during the Tokugawa shogunate.
Kamei Koremi, a samurai and daimyō in the bakumatsu period
A studio photograph of a samurai, taken by Italian–British photographer Felice Beato, c. 1860
Iinuma Sadakichi, a Japanese samurai of the Aizu domain. He was the sole survivor of the famous group of young Byakkotai soldiers who committed suicide on Iimori Hill during the Battle of Aizu.
Samurai holding a severed head. After a battle, enemy's heads were collected and presented to the daimyo.
General Akashi Gidayu preparing to perform Seppuku after losing a battle for his master in 1582. He had just written his death poem.
Painting of Ōishi Yoshio performing seppuku, 1703
Edo-period screen depicting the Battle of Sekigahara. It began on 21 October 1600 with a total of 160,000 men facing each other.
Kōan Ogata, a samurai, physician and rangaku scholar in late Edo period Japan, noted for establishing an academy which later developed into Osaka University.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi with his wives and concubines.
Tomoe Gozen by Shitomi Kangetsu, ca. 18th century
Gyokusen-en, Japanese garden made by a Korean samurai Wakita Naokata and his descendants.
1890s photo showing a variety of armor and weapons typically used by samurai
Mounted samurai with horse armour (uma yoroi or bagai)
Kamakura samurai beheading (head collection)
Statue of samurai Kusunoki Masashige stationed outside Tokyo Imperial Palace.
Kasuga no Tsubone fighting robbers - Adachi Ginko (c.1880)
Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi, ca. 1885
Japanese woman preparing for ritual suicide
Yuki no Kata defending Anotsu castle. 18th century
A samurai class woman.
Cross sections of Japanese sword lamination methods.
Diagram of the Katana sword.
Samurai with various armor and weapons, c. 1802-1814
Antique Japanese tachi
Antique Japanese katana
Antique Japanese wakizashi
Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival
Japanese arrow stand with a pair of Yumi bows.
The bow of the Kamakura period
The arrow of the Kamakura period
Ō-yoroi, Kamakura period, 13th-14th century, Kasuga Grand Shrine, National Treasure
Dō-maru with Black and White Lacing. Muromachi period, 15th century, Tokyo National Museum, Important Cultural Property
Toyotomi Hidetsugu's gusoku armour, Azuchi-Momoyama period, 16th-17th century, Suntory Museum of Art
Karuta tatami dō gusoku, Edo period. A lightweight portable folding (tatami) armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta. The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing.
A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour (uma yoroi or bagai).
Shell-shaped cask (Oitaragainari kawari kabuto), iron and papier-mâché for the shell, beginning of the Edo Period.
Face guard (Menpō). Edo period. Tokyo Fuji Art Museum.
Samurai in armor in the 1860s; hand-colored photograph by Felice Beato
Kofun period helmet, gilt copper, 5th century, Ise Province

Samurai (侍) were the hereditary military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan from the late 12th century until their abolition in 1876.

History of Japan

The first human inhabitants of the Japanese archipelago have been traced to prehistoric times around 30,000 BCE.

Reconstruction of a Jōmon family from the Sannai-Maruyama Site.
A Yayoi period bronze bell (dōtaku) of the 3rd century CE
Daisenryō Kofun, Osaka
Territorial extent of Yamato court during the Kofun period
Buddhist temple of Horyu-ji is the oldest wooden structure in the world. It was commissioned by Prince Shotoku and represents the beginning of Buddhism in Japan.
The word Nihon written in kanji (horizontal placement of characters). The text means "Japan" in Japanese.
Prince Shōtoku was a semi-legendary regent of the Asuka period, and considered to be the first major sponsor of Buddhism in Japan.
The Daibutsu-den, within the complex of Tōdai-ji. This Buddhist temple was sponsored by the Imperial Court during the Nara period.
Miniature model of the ancient capital Heian-kyō
Later Three-Year War in the 11th century.
A handscroll painting dated c. 1130, illustrating a scene from the "Bamboo River" chapter of The Tale of Genji
Minamoto no Yoritomo was the founder of the Kamakura shogunate in 1192. This was the first military government in which the shogun with the samurai were the de facto rulers of Japan.
Portrait of Ashikaga Takauji who was the founder and first shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate
Kinkaku-ji was built in 1397 by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu
Map showing the territories of major daimyō families around 1570 CE
Japan (Iapam) and Korea, in the 1568 Portuguese map of the cartographer João Vaz Dourado.
The Black Ship Portuguese traders that came from Goa and Macau once a year.
Japan in 1582, showing territory conquered by Oda Nobunaga in gray
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Samurai could kill a commoner for the slightest insult and were widely feared by the Japanese population. Edo period, 1798.
Samurai of the Satsuma Domain during the Boshin War
Emperor Meiji, the 122nd Emperor of Japan
The Japanese Empire in 1939
Japanese experts inspect the scene of the 'railway sabotage' on South Manchurian Railway, leading to the Mukden Incident and the Japanese occupation of Manchuria.
Planes from the Japanese aircraft carrier Shōkaku preparing the attack on Pearl Harbor
The Empire of Japan at its peak in 1942:
Atomic cloud over Hiroshima, 1945
General Douglas MacArthur and Emperor of Japan, Hirohito, at their first meeting, September 1945
US Secretary of State Dean Acheson signing the Treaty of Peace with Japan, 8 September 1951
Shigeru Yoshida was one of the longest serving PMs in Japanese history (1946–1947 and 1948–1954).
Tokyo in 2010
Wreckage at a railway station destroyed during the 2011 earthquake and tsunami.
Social structure of the Edo period
A vase from the early Jōmon period (11000–7000 BC)
Middle Jōmon vase (2000 BC)
Dogū figurine of the late Jōmon period (1000–400 BC)
Ancient drawing depicting a samurai battling forces of the Mongol Empire
Samurai Mitsui Sukenaga (right) defeating the Mongolian invasion army (left)
Shiraishi clan

The Tokugawa shogunate, which governed from Edo (modern Tokyo), presided over a prosperous and peaceful era known as the Edo period (1600–1868).

Tokugawa shogunate

The mon of the Tokugawa clan. The Tokugawa shogunate (1600-1868) preserved 250 years of peace.
Edo Castle, 17th century
Dutch trading post in Dejima, c. 1805
Sakuradamon Gate of Edo Castle where Ii Naosuke was assassinated in 1860
Samurai of the Shimazu clan

The Tokugawa shogunate (, Japanese 徳川幕府 Tokugawa bakufu), also known as the Edo shogunate (江戸幕府), was the military government of Japan during the Edo period from 1603 to 1868.


Chinese-based Japanese unit of volume.

A man playing the shakuhachi flute, named after its traditional length of 1 shaku and 8 sun (54.5 cm).

This modern koku is essentially defined to be the same as the koku from the Edo period (1600–1868), namely 100 times the shō equal to 64827 cubic bu in the traditional shakkanhō measuring system.

Han system

Map of the territories of the Sengoku daimyos around the first year of the Genki era (1570 AD).

Han (藩, "domain") is a Japanese historical term for the estate of a daimyo in the Edo period (1603–1868) and early Meiji period (1868–1912).

Kantō region

Geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.

Geofeatures map of Kanto
Kantō region satellite photo
Mount Nikkō-Shirane, in the Kantō region
Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building
Tokyo Tower

The heartland of feudal power during the Kamakura period and again in the Edo period, Kanto became the center of modern development.

Fudai daimyō

Class of daimyō (大名) in the Tokugawa Shogunate (徳川幕府) of Japan who were hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa before the Battle of Sekigahara.

Honda Tadakatsu, a famous fudai daimyō of the early Edo period.
Hayashi Tadataka, a famous fudai daimyō of the Bakumatsu period.

Fudai daimyō and their descendants filled the ranks of the Tokugawa administration in opposition to the tozama daimyō and held most of the power in Japan during the Edo period.


Designated city in the Kansai region of Honshu in Japan.

Satellite image of Osaka
A street in Umeda, Osaka
Osaka Exchange in the Kitahama district of Osaka
Greater Osaka (without Kyoto) Metropolitan Employment Area.
Keihanshin with Osaka (red), Kobe (green), and Kyoto (blue).
Map of Osaka Metro system
A chef prepares for the evening rush in Umeda
The Glico Man among numerous signboards at Dōtonbori
Grand Front Osaka
Chayamachi district in Kita-ku
Amerikamura in Chuo-ku
Nipponbashi in Naniwa-ku
The National Museum of Art, a subterranean museum for Japanese and international arts
Tenjin Matsuri
The Osaka Dome, home to the Orix Buffaloes and Hanshin Tigers
NHK Osaka
Kansai University
Osaka City University
Universal Studios Japan
Nagai Park is visible
Tsūtenkaku, a symbol of Osaka's postwar reconstruction
Ancient shells found in the Morinomiya kaizuka (Jomon period)
Daisen Kofun, the largest Kofun in Sakai, Osaka, 5th century
Sumiyoshi Taisha Grand Shrine
Remains of Naniwa-no-Miya Palace (2017)
Osaka Castle (first built in 1583)
The Sumiyoshi-matsuri in the 16th century
Japanese painting of the Siege of Osaka (1615)
Map of Osaka, 1686
Dōjima Rice Exchange ukiyo-e by Yoshimitsu Sasaki
A model of the Kawaguchi foreign settlement (1868-1899)
Skyscrapers in Umeda district
Sennichimae area in 1916
View of Osaka after the bombing in 1945
The Expo '70 was the first world's fair held in Japan and Asia
Abeno Harukas, tallest building in Japan
Central Osaka looking north from the Abeno Harukas observation deck (2014)
Osaka skyline towards Umeda (2014)
Nakanoshima, a boundary of Kita (right) and Semba (left)
Umeda district (2019)
Dōtonbori bridge
Namba (2015)
Utsubo Park
Osaka Castle Park
Sakuranomiya Park
Yodogawa Riverside Park
Izumi Hall
Osaka-jō Hall
National Bunraku Theatre
Tenma Tenjin Shichotei

Osaka continued to flourish during the Edo period (1603–1867) and became known as a center of Japanese culture.