Edo period

Edo-periodEdoTokugawaTokugawa periodJapanJapan (Edo period)Edo eraTokugawa era17th century Japanearly modern
The Edo period or Tokugawa period is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.wikipedia
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Dutch East India Company

VOCDutchDutch VOC
Only China, the Dutch East India Company, and for a short period, the English, enjoyed the right to visit Japan during this period, for commercial purposes only, and they were restricted to the Dejima port in Nagasaki.

Confucianism

ConfucianConfucianistConfucian philosophy
It created a balance of power that remained (fairly) stable for the next 250 years, influenced by Confucian principles of social order. Confucian studies had long been kept active in Japan by Buddhist clerics, but during the Tokugawa period, Confucianism emerged from Buddhist religious control.

Social order

orderorder in societysocial orders
It created a balance of power that remained (fairly) stable for the next 250 years, influenced by Confucian principles of social order.

Kuge

court noblecourt nobilitycourtier
At the top were the emperor and court nobles (kuge), together with the shōgun and daimyō.

Four occupations

merchantsshifour classes
Below them the population was divided into four classes in a system known as mibunsei : the samurai on top (about 5% of the population) and the peasants (more than 80% of the population) on the second level.

Bureaucracy

bureaucraticbureaucraciesbureaucrat
The Edo period bequeathed a vital commercial sector to be in burgeoning urban centers, a relatively well-educated elite, a sophisticated government bureaucracy, productive agriculture, a closely unified nation with highly developed financial and marketing systems, and a national infrastructure of roads.

Urbanization

urbanisationurbanizedUrban
Economic development during the Tokugawa period included urbanization, increased shipping of commodities, a significant expansion of domestic and, initially, foreign commerce, and a diffusion of trade and handicraft industries.

Handicraft

arts and craftshandicraftshandmade
Economic development during the Tokugawa period included urbanization, increased shipping of commodities, a significant expansion of domestic and, initially, foreign commerce, and a diffusion of trade and handicraft industries.

Castle town

castle settlementcastletonjōkamachi
Many other castle towns grew as well.

Zero population growth

population stabilization
Japan had almost zero population growth between the 1720s and 1820s, often attributed to lower birth rates in response to widespread famine, but some historians have presented different theories, such as a high rate of infanticide artificially controlling population.

Rice (disambiguation)

riceAman paddypaddy
Rice was the base of the economy.

Forward contract

forwardsforwardforward transactions
To raise money, the daimyō used forward contracts to sell rice that was not even harvested yet.

Futures contract

futuresfutures tradingfutures contracts
These contracts were similar to modern futures trading.

Forest management

managedmanagementwoodland management
It was during the Edo period that Japan developed an advanced forest management policy.

Silviculture

silviculturalsilviculturistsilviculturalist
By the 18th century, Japan had developed detailed scientific knowledge about silviculture and plantation forestry.

Forestry

loggingforestertimber trade
By the 18th century, Japan had developed detailed scientific knowledge about silviculture and plantation forestry.

Neo-Confucianism

Neo-ConfucianNeo-ConfucianistNeo-Confucians
The flourishing of Neo-Confucianism was the major intellectual development of the Tokugawa period.

Buddhism

BuddhistBuddhistsBuddha
Confucian studies had long been kept active in Japan by Buddhist clerics, but during the Tokugawa period, Confucianism emerged from Buddhist religious control.

Humanism

humanisthumanistichumanists
The ethical humanism, rationalism, and historical perspective of neo-Confucian doctrine appealed to the official class.

Rationalism

rationalistrationalisticrationalists
The ethical humanism, rationalism, and historical perspective of neo-Confucian doctrine appealed to the official class.

Rule of law

the rule of lawlegal forcerule
The rule of the people or Confucian man was gradually replaced by the rule of law.

Bunraku

jōruriningyō jōruripuppet theatre
Professional female entertainers (geisha), music, popular stories, Kabuki and bunraku (puppet theater), poetry, a rich literature, and art, exemplified by beautiful woodblock prints (known as ukiyo-e), were all part of this flowering of culture.

Chikamatsu Monzaemon

Chikamatsu
Literature also flourished with the talented examples of the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653–1724) and the poet, essayist, and travel writer Matsuo Bashō (1644–94).

Yūkaku

pleasure districtspleasure districtbrothel
Ukiyo-e is a genre of painting and printmaking that developed in the late 17th century, at first depicting the entertainments of the pleasure districts of Edo, such as courtesans and kabuki actors.

Suzuki Harunobu

Harunobu
Harunobu produced the first full-colour nishiki-e prints in 1765, a form that has become synonymous to most with ukiyo-e.