Education in Germany

GrundschuleOberschuleGermanyBerufsschuleGermaneducationalGerman educationprimary schoolsBerufsfachschuleGerman school
Education in Germany is primarily the responsibility of individual German states (Länder), with the federal government playing a minor role.wikipedia
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Germany

GermanGERFederal Republic of Germany
The system varies throughout Germany because each state (Land) decides its own educational policies.
As a highly developed country with a very high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, and a tuition-free university education.

Gymnasium (Germany)

GymnasiumRealgymnasiumGymnasiums
The Gymnasium is designed to prepare pupils for higher education and finishes with the final examination Abitur, after grade 13.
Students are generally admitted at 10 (12) years of age and are required to have completed four years (six in Berlin and Brandenburg only) of grundschule (primary education).

Hauptschule

Hauptsecondary schoolHaupt-
The Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediate pupils and finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife, after grade 10; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education and finishes with the final examination Hauptschulabschluss, after grade 9 and the Realschulabschluss after grade 10.
A Hauptschule (, "general school") is a secondary school in Germany, starting after four years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education (Level 2) according to the International Standard Classification of Education.

Volksschule

folk schoolprimary school4. ''Volksschule
During the 18th century, the Kingdom of Prussia was among the first countries in the world to introduce free and generally compulsory primary education, consisting of an eight-year course of basic education, Volksschule.
In Germany and Switzerland it is equivalent to a combined primary (Grundschule and Primarschule, respectively) and lower secondary education (Hauptschule or Sekundarschule), usually comprising a mandatory attendance over a period of nine years.

Master craftsman

mastercraftsmancraftsmen
In order to enter university, students are, as a rule, required to have passed the Abitur examination; since 2009, however, those with a Meisterbrief (master craftsman's diploma) have also been able to apply.
The German Meister qualifies the holder to study for a bachelor's degree at university, whether the Meister holds a regular university entrance qualification or not.

Realschule

OberrealschulerealskoleRealschule plus
The Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediate pupils and finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife, after grade 10; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education and finishes with the final examination Hauptschulabschluss, after grade 9 and the Realschulabschluss after grade 10.
In some states, Realschulen have recently been replaced by Oberschulen or Sekundarschulen.

Beamter

Beamtecivil servantBeamten
Teachers are employed by the Ministry of Education for the state and usually have a job for life after a certain period (verbeamtet) (which, however, is not comparable in timeframe nor competitiveness to the typical tenure track, e.g. at universities in the US).
Teachers of primary and II and III class secondary schools have a position unofficially between upper and senior service (to which latter the I class secondary school teachers belong, as they begin their service in the highest pay grade of upper service and can by promotion reach senior service (yet in the case of primary teachers, promotion is practically restricted to the principal).

Mittlere Reife

Realschulabschlusscompleted secondary schoolMiddle School
The Realschule has a broader range of emphasis for intermediate pupils and finishes with the final examination Mittlere Reife, after grade 10; the Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education and finishes with the final examination Hauptschulabschluss, after grade 9 and the Realschulabschluss after grade 10.
The Mittlere Reife can be awarded to students who attend a number of different schools, including the Hauptschule, the Realschule, the Werkrealschule, the Berufsfachschule, the Wirtschaftschule, and the Gesamtschule.

Religious education

REreligious instructioneducation
German public schools generally have religious education provided by the churches in cooperation with the state ever since.
Education in Germany still embodies the legacy of the Prussian education system introduced by Frederick the Great in 1763.

Abitur

school final examsschool final exams (''Abitur'')school final exams (''"Abitur"'')
The Gymnasium is designed to prepare pupils for higher education and finishes with the final examination Abitur, after grade 13.

Diplom

VordiplomDipl.-Ing.diploma
Prior to the Bologna process, Fachhochschule graduates received a Diplom.
A Diplom (, from diploma) is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine and only for engineers in France, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Brazil.

Doctorate

doctoraldoctoral degreedoctorate degree
The German tertiary education system distinguishes between two types of institutions: The term Universität (university) is reserved for institutions which have the right to confer doctorates.
After that time the German practice of requiring lecturers to have completed a research doctorate spread.

Mittelschule

Mittelschule/Collège/LiceoGymnasiumLangzeit- and Kurzzeitmittelschule

Affirmative action

positive discriminationemployment equityaffirmative-action
Germany's Left Party brought up the discussion about affirmative action.
Germany's Left Party brought up the discussion about affirmative action in Germany's school system.

List of universities in Germany

German universitiesGermanyGermany's oldest university
The oldest universities of Germany are also among the oldest and best regarded in the world, with Heidelberg University being the oldest (established in 1386 and in continuous operation since then).

Bologna Process

second cycleBologna systemBologna
Prior to the Bologna process, Fachhochschule graduates received a Diplom.

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich

University of MunichMunichMunich University
It is followed by Cologne University (1388), Leipzig University (1409), Rostock University (1419), Greifswald University (1456), Freiburg University (1457), LMU Munich (1472) and the University of Tübingen (1477).

Tracking (education)

trackingAbility groupingstreaming
There is a constant public debate about tracking students by ability into several types of secondary school (i.e. Gymnasium, Realschule and Hauptschule).
Germany uses a tracked system.

Selective school

selectiveselective educationnon-selective
They also say that potential access to a Selective school would allow gifted children of lower-class parents living in poor neighborhoods better educational opportunities than if they were confined to schools with the average pupil population of their neighborhoods.
The German public school system is fundamentally selective after four years of elementary school.

States of Germany

stateGerman statefederal state
Education in Germany is primarily the responsibility of individual German states (Länder), with the federal government playing a minor role.

Kindergarten

KYear Kkindergartens
Optional Kindergarten (nursery school) education is provided for all children between one and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory.