Education in the United States

9 to 12United StateseducationGradespublic7 to 12K to 12public schools9–12public education
Education in the United States is provided in public, private, and home schools.wikipedia
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Secondary education in the United States

high schoolUnited Statessecondary school
In most schools, compulsory education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school.
Secondary education in the United States is the last seven years of statutory formal education [[sixth grade|]] through [[Twelfth grade|]].

Primary education in the United States

elementary schoolprimaryprimary education
In most schools, compulsory education is divided into three levels: elementary school, middle or junior high school, and high school.
Primary education in the United States (also elementary education) refers to the first seven to nine years of formal education in most jurisdictions, often in elementary schools, including middle schools.

U.S. state

StatestatesU. S. state
By state law, education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state.
Historically, the tasks of local law enforcement, public education, public health, regulating intrastate commerce, and local transportation and infrastructure have generally been considered primarily state responsibilities, although all of these now have significant federal funding and regulation as well.

Jonathan Kozol

Jonathon KozolKozolKozol, Jonathan
Jonathan Kozol has described these inequalities in K–12 education in Savage Inequalities and The Shame of a Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America.
Jonathan Kozol (born September 5, 1936) is an American writer, educator, and activist, best known for his books on public education in the United States.


K-12K-12 schoolK-12 education
State governments set overall educational standards, often mandate standardized tests for K–12 public school systems and supervise, usually through a board of regents, state colleges, and universities.
K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, is an American expression that indicates the number of years of publicly supported primary and secondary education found in the USA, which is similar to publicly supported school grades prior to college in several other countries, such as Afghanistan, Australia, Canada, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iran, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey.

High school (North America)

High Schoolhigh schoolsSecondary
Children are usually divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten (5–6-year olds) and first grade for the youngest children, up to twelfth grade (17–18 years old) as the final year of high school.
The Royal High School was used as a model for the first public high school in the United States, Boston Latin School, founded in Boston, Massachusetts in 1635.

Every Student Succeeds Act

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015repeal
In December 2015, President Barack Obama signed legislation replacing No Child Left Behind with the Every Student Succeeds Act.
The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is a US law passed in December 2015 that governs the United States K–12 public education policy.

Common Core State Standards Initiative

Common CoreCommon Core State StandardsCommon Core Standards
There were incentives for states to establish college and career-ready standards, which in practice meant adopting the Common Core State Standards Initiative that had been developed on a bipartisan basis by the National Governors Association, and the Council of Chief State School Officers.
The report explained that the major problem currently facing the American school system is that high school graduates were not provided with the skills and knowledge they needed to succeed in college and careers.

United States Department of Education

U.S. Department of EducationUS Department of EducationDepartment of Education
Typical ages and grade groupings in contemporary, public and private schools may be found through the U.S. Department of Education.
Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is highly decentralized, and the federal government and Department of Education are not heavily involved in determining curricula or educational standards (with the exception of the No Child Left Behind Act).

Pledge of Allegiance

Pledge of Allegiance (United States)The Pledge of Allegianceunder God
About half of the states encourage schools to make their students recite the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag daily.
All states except California, Hawaii, Iowa, Vermont, and Wyoming require a regularly scheduled recitation of the pledge in public schools.

Academic grading in the United States

In schools in the United States children are assessed throughout the school year by their teachers, and report cards are issued to parents at varying intervals.
Below is the grading system found to be most commonly used in United States public high schools, according to the 2009 High School Transcript Study.


So.sophomore yearSo
The 10th grade is the second year of a student's high school period (usually aged 15–16) and is referred to as sophomore year.


Scholastic Aptitude TestSAT Reasoning TestSAT scores
The SAT and ACT are the most common standardized tests that students take when applying to college.
The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.

Grade inflation

Educational devaluationannual grade riseeasy As
Others consider standardized tests to be a valuable objective check on grade inflation.
Grade inflation is frequently discussed in relation to education in the United States, and to GCSEs and A levels in England and Wales.

ACT (test)

ACTACT testACT exam
The SAT and ACT are the most common standardized tests that students take when applying to college.
The ACT (originally an abbreviation of American College Testing) is a standardized test used for college admissions in the United States.

Junior (education)

juniorJr.junior year
In the United States, the 11th grade is usually the third year of a student's high school period and is referred to as junior year.

Magnet school

magnetmagnet programmagnet schools
To compensate for differences in school quality based on geography, school systems serving large cities and portions of large cities often have magnet schools that provide enrollment to a specified number of non-resident students in addition to serving all resident students.
In the U.S. education system, magnet schools are public schools with specialized courses or curricula.

National curriculum

English National CurriculumBritish CurriculumBritish National Curriculum
Title VI explicitly forbade the establishment of a national curriculum.

Education reform

educational reformschool reformeducational reformer
In the early 19th century Massachusetts took the lead in education reform and public education with programs designed by Horace Mann that were widely emulated across the North.
In October 2010 Apple Inc. CEO Steve Jobs had a consequential meeting with U.S. President Barack Obama to discuss U.S. competitiveness and the nation's education system.

School choice

Open enrollmenteducational choicechoice
This is the basis of the school choice movement.
Economist and Nobel laureate Milton Friedman proposed in 1955 using free market principles to improve the United States public school system.

Higher education in the United States

higher educationcollegeheightened cash monitoring
Post-secondary education, divided into college, as the first tertiary degree, and graduate school, is described in a separate section below.

Tenth grade

The term high school is often used to mean senior high school and distinguished from junior high school.


OHState of OhioOhio, USA
In the same year, the U.S. Supreme Court diluted some of the century-old "Blaine" laws upheld an Ohio law allowing aid to parochial schools under specific circumstances.
Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states.

Advanced Placement

APAdvanced Placement ProgramAdvanced Placement (AP)
Many high schools provide Honors, Advanced Placement (AP) or International Baccalaureate (IB) courses.

David Tyack

David B. TyackTyack, DavidTyack, David B.
Tyack is known for his wide-ranging studies and interpretations of the history of American education.