Edvard Beneš

BenešPresident BenešBeneš, EdvardDr Edvard BenešEduard BenešpresidentPresident BenesPresident Edvard Beneš of Czechoslovakia
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.wikipedia
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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Czechoslovakia)

Minister of Foreign AffairsCzech Minister of Foreign AffairsMinistry of Foreign Affairs
Beneš was also the 1st Minister of Foreign Affairs (1918–1935) and the 4th Prime Minister (1921–1922) of Czechoslovakia. From 1916 to 1918, he was a Secretary of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris and Minister of the Interior and of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Czechoslovak government.

Czechoslovak government-in-exile

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakgovernment-in-exile
His first resignation came after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938 which brought his government into exile, and the second came about with the 1948 communist coup.
The name came to be used by other World War II Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939.

Vojta Beneš

One of his siblings was the future Czechoslovak politician Vojta Beneš.
Vojta Beneš (May 11, 1878 – November 20, 1951) was a Czech educator, political leader in Czechoslovakia and brother of Edvard Beneš.

German occupation of Czechoslovakia

occupation of CzechoslovakiaGerman occupationNazi occupation
His first resignation came after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938 which brought his government into exile, and the second came about with the 1948 communist coup.
Henlein met with Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938, where he was instructed to raise demands unacceptable to the Czechoslovak government led by president Edvard Beneš.

1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Communist coupcoup d'état1948 coup d'état
His first resignation came after the German occupation of Czechoslovakia in 1938 which brought his government into exile, and the second came about with the 1948 communist coup.
President Edvard Beneš, not himself a Communist but very amenable to cooperation with the Soviets, and who hoped for restraint by the Allied powers, thus invited Gottwald to be prime minister.

Maffia

Czech resistancemaffiosi
He organized a pro-independence and anti-Austrian secret resistance movement, Maffia.
It was founded after emigration of Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in 1914 by Czech politician Edvard Beneš, who later became second president of Czechoslovakia, and others main anti-royalist (Karel Kramář, Alois Rašín, Josef Scheiner and Přemysl Šámal).

List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia

Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Czechoslovakiacomplete list
Beneš was also the 1st Minister of Foreign Affairs (1918–1935) and the 4th Prime Minister (1921–1922) of Czechoslovakia.

Karel Kramář

Dr. Karel KramářKarel Kramá
On 31 October 1918, Karel Kramář reported from Geneva to Prague: "If you saw our Dr. Beneš and his mastery of global questions...you would take off your hat and say it was truly marvelous!"
Although he remained a member of the National Assembly until his death in 1937, his conservative nationalism was out of tune with the main political establishment, represented by the figures of T.G. Masaryk and Edvard Beneš.

Czechs

CzechBohemianCzech people
In May 1918, Beneš, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Milan Rastislav Štefánik were reported to be organizing a Czecho-Slovak army to fight for the Western Allies in France, recruited from among Czechs and Slovaks who were able to get to the front and also from the large emigrant populations in the United States, which was said to number more than 1,500,000.
One of the most notable figures are founders of Czechoslovakia, modern state of independence of Czech and Slovak nations, Presidents Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Edvard Beneš, who was also leader of exile government in World War II.

Václav E. Beneš

Beneš, Václav E.Václav Edvard Beneš
Bohuš was the father of Emilie Benes Brzezinski, an American sculptor, and Václav E. Beneš, a Czech-American mathematician.
He is a relative of the former President of Czechoslovakia Edvard Beneš and politician Vojta Beneš.

Kožlany

Eduard Beneš was born into a peasant family in 1884 in the small town of Kožlany, Bohemia, in what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Edvard Beneš, the second president of Czechoslovakia, was born in Kožlany in 1884.

Munich Agreement

Munich CrisisMunichMunich Conference
On 30 September 1938, Germany, Italy, France and the United Kingdom signed the Munich Agreement, which allowed for the annexation and the military occupation of the Sudetenland by Germany.
Shortly after the Anschluss of Austria to Germany, Henlein met with Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938, where he was instructed to raise demands unacceptable to the Czechoslovak government led by president Edvard Beneš.

Emilie Benes Brzezinski

Emilie Anna BenešováEmilie BenesEmilie Brzezinsk
Bohuš was the father of Emilie Benes Brzezinski, an American sculptor, and Václav E. Beneš, a Czech-American mathematician.
Shortly after graduating from Wellesley, Emilie Beneš, herself a relative of Czechoslovakia's former president Edvard Beneš, married Polish-born emigrant turned naturalized citizen Zbigniew Brzezinski, a political scientist who served as an adviser to President Carter.

Czechoslovak National Council

From 1916 to 1918, he was a Secretary of the Czechoslovak National Council in Paris and Minister of the Interior and of Foreign Affairs in the Provisional Czechoslovak government.
Edvard Beneš, who joined Masaryk in exile in September 1915, was named the organization’s general secretary.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
Czechoslovakia was not consulted.
He was succeeded by his close ally, Edvard Beneš (1884–1948).

Charles University

University of PraguePragueCharles University in Prague
After studying philosophy at Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague, he left for Paris and continued his studies at the Sorbonne and at the Independent School of Political and Social Studies.

List of Presidents of Czechoslovakia

PresidentPresident of CzechoslovakiaPresidents
Edvard Beneš, sometimes anglicised to Edward Benesh (28 May 1884 – 3 September 1948), was a Czech politician and statesman who was President of Czechoslovakia from 1935 to 1938 and again from 1945 to 1948.

Konrad Henlein

HenleinHENLEIN, Konrad
The crisis began on 24 April 1938 when Konrad Henlein at the party congress of the Sudeten German Party in Karlsbad (modern Karlovy Vary) announced the 8-point "Karlsbad programme" demanding autonomy for the Sudetenland.
As early as 15 May 1934, the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Edvard Beneš in a note to President Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk accused Henlein's Heimfront of being financially supported by Berlin.

Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk

MasarykTomáš MasarykT. G. Masaryk
In May 1918, Beneš, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Milan Rastislav Štefánik were reported to be organizing a Czecho-Slovak army to fight for the Western Allies in France, recruited from among Czechs and Slovaks who were able to get to the front and also from the large emigrant populations in the United States, which was said to number more than 1,500,000.
He resigned from office on December 14, 1935 on the grounds of old age and poor health, and Edvard Beneš succeeded him.

Milan Rastislav Štefánik

Milan ŠtefánikŠtefánikMilan Stefanik
In May 1918, Beneš, Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and Milan Rastislav Štefánik were reported to be organizing a Czecho-Slovak army to fight for the Western Allies in France, recruited from among Czechs and Slovaks who were able to get to the front and also from the large emigrant populations in the United States, which was said to number more than 1,500,000.
Štefánik returned to Paris at the end of 1915, where he became acquainted with Edvard Beneš and renewed his association with his former professor, Masaryk.

Wickham Steed

Henry Wickham Steed
Besides his new British friends like Churchill and Nicolson, Beneš also resumed contact with old British friends from World War I such as the historian Robert Seton-Watson and the journalist Henry Wickham Steed, who wrote articles urging the restoration of Czechoslovakia to its pre-Munich Agreement borders.
During the war, Steed befriended anti-Habsburg émigrés such as Edvard Beneš, Ante Trumbić, Tomáš Masaryk and Roman Dmowski and advised the British government to seek the liquidation of Austria-Hungary as a war aim.

Czechoslovak Constitution of 1920

1920 ConstitutionconstitutionConstitution of 1920
Kramář very much resented the way in which Masaryk openly groomed Beneš as his successor, noting that Masaryk put articles into the Constitution that set 45 as the age limit for senators, but 35 as the age limit for the presidency, which conveniently made Beneš eligible for the presidency.
However, the personal prestige of the first two presidents, Tomáš Masaryk and Edvard Beneš, and the instability of successive governments (for example, Masaryk's presidency saw 10 cabinets headed by nine statesmen) meant that the president wielded in practice more authority than the plain text of the constitution suggested.

Resistance in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia

Czech resistanceResistanceresistance movement
As part of his efforts to improve his bargaining position, Beneš often exaggerated to the British the efficiency of Moravec's group, the Czechoslovak army in exile and the underground [[Resistance in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia#Consolidation of resistance groups: ÚVOD|UVOD resistance group]].
The Czech resistance network that existed during the early years of the Second World War operated under the leadership of Czechoslovak president Edvard Beneš, who together with the head of Czechoslovak military intelligence, František Moravec, coordinated resistance activity while in exile in London.

Operation Anthropoid

assassination of Reinhard Heydrichassassinationassassinated
In 1941, Beneš and František Moravec planned Operation Anthropoid to assassinate Reinhard Heydrich, a high-ranking German official who was responsible for suppressing Czech culture, and for deporting and executing members of the Czech resistance.
The Czechoslovaks undertook the operation to help confer legitimacy on Edvard Beneš's government-in-exile in London, as well as for retribution for Heydrich's brutally efficient rule.

Adolf Hitler

HitlerFührerthe leader
On 12 September 1938, in his keynote speech at the Nuremberg party rally, Adolf Hitler demanded the Sudetenland join Germany.
As a result of intense French and British diplomatic pressure, on 5 September Czechoslovakian President Edvard Beneš unveiled the "Fourth Plan" for constitutional reorganisation of his country, which agreed to most of Henlein's demands for Sudeten autonomy.