Edward Drinker Cope

CopeCope EDCope, E.D.E. D. CopeEdward CopeEdward D. CopeE.D. CopeCope ED.Cope, 1866Cope, Edward Drinker
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist.wikipedia
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Bone Wars

rivalBone Warbitter rivalry
A personal feud between Cope and paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh led to a period of intense fossil-finding competition now known as the Bone Wars.
The Bone Wars, also known as the Great Dinosaur Rush, was a period of intense and ruthlessly competitive fossil hunting and discovery during the Gilded Age of American history, marked by a heated rivalry between Edward Drinker Cope (of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia) and Othniel Charles Marsh (of the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale).

Cope's rule

Cope’s RuleCope-Depéret ruleGigantism
"Cope's rule", however, the hypothesis that mammalian lineages gradually grow larger over geologic time, while named after him, is "neither explicit nor implicit" in his work.
Cope's rule, named after American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope, postulates that population lineages tend to increase in body size over evolutionary time.

Othniel Charles Marsh

MarshO. C. MarshO.C. Marsh
A personal feud between Cope and paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh led to a period of intense fossil-finding competition now known as the Bone Wars.
From the 1870s to 1890s he competed with rival paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in a period of frenzied Western American expeditions known as the Bone Wars.

Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University

Academy of Natural SciencesAcademy of Natural Sciences of PhiladelphiaPhiladelphia Academy of Natural Sciences
While at the school, he frequently visited the Academy of Natural Sciences.
Later during the 19th century, other notable naturalists and scientists, including John James Audubon, Charles S. Boyer, John Cassin, Edward Drinker Cope, Ezra Townsend Cresson, Richard Harlan, Ferdinand V. Hayden, Isaac Lea, John Lawrence LeConte, Joseph Leidy, Samuel Morton, George Ord, and James Rehn were also members.

Elasmosaurus

Elasmosaurus platyuruselasmosaursElasmosaurus orientalis
The fossils he found in these pits became the focus of several papers, including a description in 1868 of Elasmosaurus platyurus and Laelaps.
The first specimen was discovered in 1867 near Fort Wallace, Kansas, and was sent to the American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope, who named it E.platyurus in 1868.

Dryptosaurus

LaelapsDryptosaurus aquilunguisLaelaps aquilunguis
The fossils he found in these pits became the focus of several papers, including a description in 1868 of Elasmosaurus platyurus and Laelaps.
First described by Edward Drinker Cope in 1866 and later renamed by Othniel C. Marsh in 1877, Dryptosaurus is among the first theropod dinosaurs known to science.

Henry Fairfield Osborn

OsbornHenry F. OsbornHenry Fairfield Osborne
Biographer and paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn attributed Edward's sudden departure for Europe as a method of keeping him from being drafted into the Civil War.
From 1873 to 1877, Osborn studied at Princeton University, obtaining a B.A. in geology and archaeology, where he was mentored by paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope.

Amphicoelias

Amphicoelias altusAmphicoelias brontodiplodocus
Among his descriptions were the therapsid Lystrosaurus (1870), the archosauromorph Champsosaurus (1876), and the sauropod Amphicoelias (1878), possibly the largest dinosaur ever discovered.
When described by Edward Drinker Cope shortly after its discovery in 1877, Amphicoelias was noted to include many back vertebrae, a single pubis, and a femur.

Benjamin Franklin Mudge

Benjamin MudgeB. F. MudgeBenjamin F. Mudge
Leidy and Marsh had been to the region earlier, and Cope employed one of Marsh's guides, Benjamin Mudge, who was in want of a job.
While not formally trained in paleontology, he kept extensive and accurate field notes and sent most of his fossils East to be described by some of the most noted paleontologists of his time, including the rivals Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope.

Haddonfield, New Jersey

HaddonfieldHaddonfield BoroughHaddonfield, NJ
Cope married his cousin and had one child; the family moved from Philadelphia to Haddonfield, New Jersey, although Cope would maintain a residence and museum in Philadelphia in his later years.

Ichthyology

ichthyologistichthyologicalichthyologists
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist.

Charles Hazelius Sternberg

Charles H. SternbergSternbergCharles Sternberg
Cope's companion Charles Sternberg described the lack of water and good food available to Cope and his helpers on these expeditions.
In 1876, Edward Drinker Cope funded Sternberg's first formal expedition to Park, Kansas, and Sternberg continued to work with Cope for several field seasons in the years that followed.

Joseph Leidy

LeidyJ. Leidy
Cope attended the University of Pennsylvania in the 1861 and/or 1862 academic years, studying comparative anatomy under Joseph Leidy, one of the most influential anatomists and paleontologists at the time.
The noted American fossil collector and paleontologist E. D. Cope was a student of Leidy's, but the enmity and ruthless competition that developed between him and rival paleontologist O. C. Marsh eventually drove Leidy out of western American vertebrate paleontology, a field that Leidy had helped to found.

Plesiosauria

plesiosaurplesiosaursPlesiosaur stratigraphic distribution
When Marsh was at Haddonfield examining one of Cope's fossil finds—a complete skeleton of a large aquatic plesiosaur, Elasmosaurus, that had four flippers and a long neck—he commented that the fossil's head was on the wrong end, evidently stating that Cope had put the skull at the end of the vertebrae of the tail.
One fossil in particular marked the start of the Bone Wars between the rival paleontologists Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh.

Edaphosaurus

Edaphosaurus pogoniasNaosaurusEdaphosaurus cruciger
The 1880s marked the publication of two of the best-known fossil taxa described by Cope: the pelycosaur Edaphosaurus in 1882 and the early dinosaur Coelophysis in 1889.
The American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope first described Edaphosaurus in 1882, naming it for the "dental pavement" on both the upper and lower jaws, from the Greek edaphos/εδαφος ("ground"; also "pavement") and σαυρος/sauros ("lizard").

Monoclonius

Monoclonius crassusMonoclonius recurvicornisMonoclonius sphenocerus
In writing to Osborn about the articles, he laughed at the outcome, saying, "It will now rest largely with you whether or not I am supposed to be a liar and am actuated by jealousy and disappointment. I think Marsh is impaled on the horns of Monoclonius sphenocerus."
Monoclonius was named by Edward Drinker Cope in 1876.

Como Bluff

When Marsh heard from Union Pacific Railroad workers W.E. Carlin and W.H. Reed about a vast boneyard northwest of Laramie in Como Bluff, Marsh sent his agent, Samuel Wendell Williston, to take charge of the digging.
Most of the specimens were collected by men working for O.C. Marsh between 1877-1889, although some were collected by the Hubbel brothers for E.D. Cope between 1879-1880.

Coelophysis

Coelophysis bauriCoelurus bauriRioarribasaurus
The 1880s marked the publication of two of the best-known fossil taxa described by Cope: the pelycosaur Edaphosaurus in 1882 and the early dinosaur Coelophysis in 1889.
The type species C. bauri, originally given to the genus Coelurus by Edward Drinker Cope in 1887, was described by the latter in 1889.

Camarasaurus

Camarasaurus grandisCamarasaurus supremusMorosaurus
Among these dinosaurs was Camarasaurus, one of the most recognizable dinosaur recreations of the time.
Pursuing his long-running and acrimonious competition (known as the Bone Wars) with Othniel Charles Marsh, the paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope paid for the bones, and moving quickly, named them in the same year.

Lystrosaurus

Lystrosaurus curvatusLystrosaurus murrayiProlystrosaurus
Among his descriptions were the therapsid Lystrosaurus (1870), the archosauromorph Champsosaurus (1876), and the sauropod Amphicoelias (1878), possibly the largest dinosaur ever discovered.
Marsh's rival, Edward Drinker Cope, was very interested in seeing the find, and described and named Lystrosaurus in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society in 1870.

Colosteus

Colosteus marshii
The conflict's seeds began upon the men's return to the United States in the 1860s, although Cope named Colosteus marshii for Marsh in 1867, and Marsh returned the favor, naming Mosasaurus copeanus for Cope in 1869.
In 1869, Edward Drinker Cope erected a new genus of "batrachian", Colosteus, containing the species ''C.

Gila monster

Heloderma suspectumdesert lizarddragon-shaped
The six sat around Cope's coffin among the fossils and Cope's pets, a tortoise and a Gila monster, for what Osborn called "a perfect Quaker silence ... an interminable length of time."
Suspectum comes from the describer, paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope, who suspected the lizard might be venomous due to the grooves in the teeth.

Arthur Lakes

In 1877, Marsh received a letter from Arthur Lakes, a schoolteacher in Golden, Colorado.
Although he was employed by Marsh, Lakes was visited by Marsh's Bone Wars opponent Edward Drinker Cope, while working at Como Bluff.

The American Naturalist

American NaturalistAm. Nat.
In 1877, he purchased half the rights to the American Naturalist to publish the papers he produced at a rate so high, Marsh questioned their dating.
In 1878 the journal was for sale and Edward Cope bought half the rights.

Amphibamus

Amphibamus grandiceps
Cope's return to the United States also marked an expansion of his scientific studies; in 1864, he described several fishes, a whale, and the amphibian Amphibamus grandiceps (his first paleontological contribution.)