Edward Heath

Ted HeathSir Edward HeathHeathHeath governmentPrime Minister HeathSir Edward Richard George HeathPrime Minister Edward Heath The Right Honourable '''Edward Heath''' MBE British prime minister Edward HeathEdward '''Heath
Sir Edward Richard George "Ted" Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.wikipedia
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Margaret Thatcher

ThatcherBaroness ThatcherThatcherite
He became an embittered critic of Margaret Thatcher, who supplanted him as party leader.
Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his 1970–1974 government.

1970 United Kingdom general election

19701970 general election1970 election
Heath became Prime Minister after winning the 1970 general election.
It resulted in a surprise victory for the Conservative Party under leader Edward Heath, which defeated the governing Labour Party under Harold Wilson.

1966 United Kingdom general election

19661966 general election1966 election
Heath was elected leader of the Conservative Party in 1965; he retained that position despite losing the 1966 general election.
Shortly after the local elections, Sir Alec Douglas-Home was replaced by Edward Heath as leader of the Conservative Party.

February 1974 United Kingdom general election

February 1974 general electionFebruary 1974Feb 1974
Heath eventually called an election for February 1974 to obtain a mandate to face down the miners' wage demands, but this instead resulted in a hung parliament in which the Labour Party, despite gaining fewer votes, had four more seats than the Conservatives.
The Conservative Party led by incumbent Edward Heath lost 37 seats, but achieved a slightly higher share of the vote than Labour.

Balliol College, Oxford

Balliol CollegeBalliolBalliol College Oxford
He was educated at Chatham House Grammar School in Ramsgate, and in 1935 with the aid of a county scholarship he went up to study at Balliol College, Oxford.
The college's alumni include the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Boris Johnson MP, as well as three former prime ministers (H. H. Asquith, who once described Balliol men as possessing "the tranquil consciousness of an effortless superiority", Harold Macmillan, and Edward Heath), Harald V of Norway, Empress Masako of Japan, five Nobel laureates, and numerous literary and philosophical figures, including Adam Smith, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Aldous Huxley.

Organ scholar

List of organ scholarsBevan Organ ScholarList of organ scholars at British Universities
A talented musician, Heath won the college's organ scholarship in his first term (he had previously tried for the organ scholarships at St Catharine's College, Cambridge, and Keble College, Oxford) which enabled him to stay at the university for a fourth year; he eventually graduated with a Second Class Honours BA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1939.
Two notable ex-organ scholars who went on to achieve fame in other fields are Edward Heath, who read Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at Balliol College, Oxford and later served as British Prime Minister 1970–1974; and Dudley Moore, who read music at Magdalen College, Oxford and went on to a career in acting.

October 1974 United Kingdom general election

October 1974October 1974 general electionOct 1974
Despite losing a second general election in October that year, he vowed to continue as party leader.
The Conservative Party, still led by Edward Heath, released a manifesto promoting national unity; however, its chances of forming a government were hindered by the Ulster Unionist Party refusing to take the Conservative whip at Westminster, in response to the Sunningdale Agreement of 1973.

Philosophy, politics and economics

PPEPhilosophy, Politics, and EconomicsPolitics, Philosophy and Economics
A talented musician, Heath won the college's organ scholarship in his first term (he had previously tried for the organ scholarships at St Catharine's College, Cambridge, and Keble College, Oxford) which enabled him to stay at the university for a fourth year; he eventually graduated with a Second Class Honours BA in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1939.
This particular course has produced a significant number of notable graduates such as Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese politician and State Counsellor of Myanmar, Nobel Peace Prize winner; Princess Haya bint Hussein daughter of the late King Hussein of Jordan and wife of the ruler of Dubai; Christopher Hitchens, the British–American polemicist, Oscar winning writer and director Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck; Philippa Foot a British philosopher; Harold Wilson, Edward Heath and David Cameron, former Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom; Hugh Gaitskell, William Hague and Ed Miliband, former Leaders of the Opposition; former Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto and current Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan; and Malcolm Fraser, Bob Hawke and Tony Abbott, former Prime Ministers of Australia.

1975 Conservative Party leadership election

11 February 19751975 leadership election1975 Conservative leadership election
In February 1975, Margaret Thatcher challenged and defeated him to win the leadership.
Previous leader Edward Heath stood aside after the first ballot, in which he unexpectedly finished behind Thatcher.

Industrial Relations Act 1971

Industrial Relations ActIndustrial Relations Bill1971
Heath also tried to curb the trade unions with the Industrial Relations Act 1971, and hoped to deregulate the economy and make a transfer from direct to indirect taxation.
The act was intensely opposed by unions, and helped undermine the government of Edward Heath.

John Campbell (biographer)

John CampbellCampbell, John
It was, says biographer John Campbell, "Heath's finest hour".
His works include biographies of Lloyd George, F. E. Smith, Aneurin Bevan, Roy Jenkins, Edward Heath, and Margaret Thatcher, the last consisting of two volumes, The Grocer's Daughter (2000) and The Iron Lady (2003).

1965 Conservative Party leadership election

28 July 19651965Conservative leadership election of 1965
Heath was elected leader of the Conservative Party in 1965; he retained that position despite losing the 1966 general election. The following year, Heath—who was Shadow Chancellor at the time, and had recently won favourable publicity for leading the fight against Labour's Finance Bill—unexpectedly won the party's leadership contest, gaining 150 votes to Reginald Maudling's 133 and Enoch Powell's 15.
It was widely assumed that both Edward Heath, Shadow Chancellor, and Reginald Maudling, Shadow Foreign Secretary, would stand.

Oxford University Conservative Association

Conservative AssociationOxford Conservative AssociationOUCA
In June 1937 he was elected President of the Oxford University Conservative Association as a pro-Spanish Republic candidate, in opposition to the pro-Franco John Stokes (himself later a Conservative MP).
Past presidents of OUCA include Margaret Thatcher, Edward Heath, Jonathan Aitken, William Rees-Mogg, Daniel Hannan and Nick Robinson.

Oxford Union

Oxford Union SocietyUnionOxford
His first Paper Speech (i.e. a major speech listed on the Order Paper along with the visiting guest speakers) at the Oxford Union, in Michaelmas term 1936, was in opposition to the appeasement of Germany by returning her colonies, confiscated during the First World War.
In the debating chamber there are busts of such notables as Roy Jenkins, Edward Heath, Michael Heseltine, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and William Ewart Gladstone.

Denis Healey

Dennis HealeyHealeyDenis Healey, Baron Healey
In his final year Heath was President of Balliol College Junior Common Room, an office held in subsequent years by his near-contemporaries Denis Healey and Roy Jenkins, and as such was invited to support the Master of Balliol Alexander Lindsay, who stood as an anti-appeasement 'Independent Progressive' candidate against the official Conservative candidate, Quintin Hogg, in the 1938 Oxford by-election.
At Oxford, Healey met future Prime Minister Edward Heath (then known as "Teddy"), whom he succeeded as president of Balliol College Junior Common Room, and who became a lifelong friend and political rival.

John Stokes (Conservative politician)

John StokesJohn Heydon StokesSir John Stokes
In June 1937 he was elected President of the Oxford University Conservative Association as a pro-Spanish Republic candidate, in opposition to the pro-Franco John Stokes (himself later a Conservative MP).
He stood for election as president of the Oxford University Conservative Association on a platform of support for appeasement and General Franco; he was beaten by seven votes by future Prime Minister Edward Heath.

University of Oxford

Oxford UniversityOxfordUniversity
He was a leader in student politics at the University of Oxford and served as an officer in the Royal Artillery during the Second World War.
Twenty-eight British prime ministers have attended Oxford, including William Gladstone, H. H. Asquith, Clement Attlee, Harold Macmillan, Edward Heath, Harold Wilson, Margaret Thatcher, Tony Blair, David Cameron, Theresa May and Boris Johnson.

Roy Jenkins

The Lord Jenkins of HillheadJenkins, RoyRoy Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead
In his final year Heath was President of Balliol College Junior Common Room, an office held in subsequent years by his near-contemporaries Denis Healey and Roy Jenkins, and as such was invited to support the Master of Balliol Alexander Lindsay, who stood as an anti-appeasement 'Independent Progressive' candidate against the official Conservative candidate, Quintin Hogg, in the 1938 Oxford by-election.
His university colleagues included Tony Crosland, Denis Healey and Edward Heath, and he became friends with all three, although he was never particularly close to Healey.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
Sir Edward Richard George "Ted" Heath (9 July 1916 – 17 July 2005) was a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1974 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1965 to 1975.
Edward Heath's 1970–74 government was known for taking the UK into the EEC, although the right-wing of the party objected to his failure to control the trade unions at a time when a declining British industry saw many strikes, as well as a recession which started in 1973 and lasted for two years.

Three-Day Week

1974Three Day Weekstrike in 1974
Two miners' strikes, in 1972 and at the start of 1974, damaged the government; the latter caused the implementation of the Three-Day Week to conserve energy.
To reduce electricity consumption, and thus conserve coal stocks, the Conservative prime minister, Edward Heath, announced a number of measures on 13 December 1973, including the Three-Day Work Order, which came into force at midnight on 31 December.

Chief Whip of the Conservative Party

Chief WhipConservative Chief WhipOpposition Chief Whip
He was the Chief Whip from 1955 to 1959.

Reginald Maudling

Reggie MaudlingMaudling The Right Honourable '''Reginald Maudling
The following year, Heath—who was Shadow Chancellor at the time, and had recently won favourable publicity for leading the fight against Labour's Finance Bill—unexpectedly won the party's leadership contest, gaining 150 votes to Reginald Maudling's 133 and Enoch Powell's 15.
From 1955 until the late 1960s, he was spoken of as a prospective Conservative leader, and he was twice seriously considered for the post; he was Edward Heath's chief rival in 1965.

Church Times

The Church Times
After working as news editor of the Church Times from February 1948 to September 1949, Heath worked as a management trainee at the merchant bankers Brown, Shipley & Co. until his election as Member of Parliament (MP) for Bexley in the February 1950 general election.
Edward Heath was the paper's news editor from February 1948 to September 1949.

Heath ministry

HeathHeath governmentConservative government
Edward Heath of the Conservative Party formed the Heath ministry and was appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom by Queen Elizabeth II on 19 June 1970, following the 18 June general election.

Harold Wilson

Wilsonwhite heat of technologySir Harold Wilson
The Labour prime minister, Harold Wilson, thought the document a vote-loser and dubbed it the product of Selsdon Man – after the supposedly prehistoric Piltdown Man – to portray it as reactionary.
After losing the 1970 election to Edward Heath, he spent four years as Leader of the Opposition before the February 1974 election resulted in a hung parliament.