Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward JennerJenner PlaceJennerian
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.wikipedia
307 Related Articles

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
Smallpox vaccine, the first successful vaccine to be developed, was introduced by Edward Jenner in 1796.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Edward Jenner, FRS FRCPE (17 May 1749 – 26 January 1823) was an English physician and scientist who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.
The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox.

Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
During this time, he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health.
Edward Jenner discovered in 1798 that vaccination could prevent smallpox.

Berkeley, Gloucestershire

BerkeleyBerkeley AbbeyBerkeley Heath
In 1821 he was appointed physician extraordinary to King George IV, and was also made mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace. Jenner's house in the village of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, is now a small museum, housing, among other things, the horns of the cow, Blossom.
The town is noted for Berkeley Castle, where the imprisoned Edward II was murdered, as well as the birthplace of the physician Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, the world's first vaccine.

Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculate
During this time, he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health.
When Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine in 1798, this was initially called cowpox inoculation or vaccine inoculation.

John Hunter (surgeon)

John HunterJohnHunter
In 1770, Jenner became apprenticed in surgery and anatomy under surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's Hospital.
He was a teacher of, and collaborator with, Edward Jenner, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine.

Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpox
(Crucially this meant that he underwent variolation and not vaccination.) At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself.
The latter term was first used in 1800 soon after Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine derived from cowpox, an animal disease distinct from smallpox.

Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
(Crucially this meant that he underwent variolation and not vaccination.) At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself.
The smallpox vaccine was invented in 1796 by English physician Edward Jenner and although at least six people had used the same principles years earlier he was the first to publish evidence that it was effective and to provide advice on its production.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
Jenner contributed papers on angina pectoris, ophthalmia, and cardiac valvular disease and commented on cowpox.
Its close resemblance to the mild form of smallpox and the observation that dairy farmers were immune from smallpox inspired the first smallpox vaccine, created and administered by English physician Edward Jenner.

Artificial induction of immunity

induced immunityinducing immunitydeliberate actions
For example, Dorset farmer Benjamin Jesty successfully vaccinated and presumably induced immunity with cowpox in his wife and two children during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work that the procedure became widely understood.
In 1796, Edward Jenner, a doctor and scientist who had practiced variolation, performed an experiment based on the folk-knowledge that infection with cowpox, a disease with minor symptoms which was never fatal, also conferred immunity to smallpox.

Common cuckoo

cuckoocuckoosCuckoo Bird
A member of the Royal Society, in the field of zoology he was the first person to describe the brood parasitism of the cuckoo.
The common cuckoo's behaviour was firstly observed and described by Aristotle and the combination of behaviour and anatomical adaptation by Edward Jenner, who was elected as Fellow of the Royal Society in 1788 for this work rather than for his development of the smallpox vaccine.

James Phipps

On 14 May 1796, Jenner tested his hypothesis by inoculating James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy who was the son of Jenner's gardener.
James Phipps (1788 – 25 April 1853) was the first person given the cowpox vaccine by Edward Jenner.

Chipping Sodbury

SodburyChipping Sodbury Town
(Crucially this meant that he underwent variolation and not vaccination.) At the age of 14, he was apprenticed for seven years to Daniel Ludlow, a surgeon of Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire, where he gained most of the experience needed to become a surgeon himself.
Edward Jenner, in the 18th century, started his medical training in Sodbury, observing people catching cowpox and then not catching smallpox.

100 Greatest Britons

Great Britonsgreatest Briton100 Great Britons
In 2002, Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons.
78) Edward Jenner, physician. Inventor of the smallpox vaccine.

Balmis Expedition

an 1803 expedition to Spanish AmericaAng Espedisyong Balmisexpedition
The success of his discovery soon spread around Europe and was used en masse in the Spanish Balmis Expedition (1803–1806), a three-year-long mission to the Americas, the Philippines, Macao, China, led by Dr. Francisco Javier de Balmis with the aim of giving thousands the smallpox vaccine.
Vaccination, a much safer way to prevent smallpox than older methods such as inoculation, had been introduced by the English physician Edward Jenner in 1798.

St George's Hospital

St. George's Hospital, LondonSt George’s HospitalSt George
In 1770, Jenner became apprenticed in surgery and anatomy under surgeon John Hunter and others at St George's Hospital.
Edward Jenner, introduced vaccination for smallpox

Gloucestershire

Glos.GloucesterCounty of Gloucester
Jenner and others formed the Fleece Medical Society or Gloucestershire Medical Society, so called because it met in the parlour of the Fleece Inn, Rodborough (in Gloucestershire).
Edward Jenner's House

John Fewster

By 1768, English physician John Fewster had realised that prior infection with cowpox rendered a person immune to smallpox.
Fewster, a friend and professional colleague of Edward Jenner, played an important role in the discovery of the smallpox vaccine.

Jacques Antoine Rabaut-Pommier

A similar observation had also been made in France by Jacques Antoine Rabaut-Pommier in 1780.
Through a mutual friend, a Bristol merchant named James Ireland, Rabaut-Pommier passed his observations to an English physician, Dr. Pugh, who promised to pass them on to his colleague Edward Jenner, who was interested in the same problem.

University of St Andrews

St AndrewsSt. AndrewsUniversity of St. Andrews
He earned his MD from the University of St Andrews in 1792.
Notable University of St Andrews alumni include King James II of Scotland; United States Declaration of Independence signatory James Wilson (1761); Governor General of Canada John Campbell; discoverer of logarithms John Napier (1563); founder of the Church of Scotland and leader of the Protestant Reformation John Knox (1531); notable Leader of the Church of Scotland Thomas Chalmers; founder of and the first Chancellor of the University of Glasgow William Turnbull; founder of the University of Edinburgh Robert Reid; founder of the world's first commercial savings bank Henry Duncan (1823); journalist and politician during the French Revolution Jean-Paul Marat (1775 MD); inventor of beta-blockers, H2 receptor antagonists and Nobel Prize in Medicine winner James W. Black (1946 MB ChB); the 'father of military medicine' Sir John Pringle, 1st Baronet; pioneer of the smallpox vaccine Edward Jenner (1792 MD); Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (2005) and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (2005).

Kingscote Park, Gloucestershire

Kingscote Park
Jenner's trial balloon descended into Kingscote Park, Gloucestershire, owned by Anthony Kingscote, one of whose daughters was Catherine.
It was owned by Anthony Kingscote, whose daughter Catherine married Edward Jenner on 6 March 1788.

Benjamin Jesty

Jesty
For example, Dorset farmer Benjamin Jesty successfully vaccinated and presumably induced immunity with cowpox in his wife and two children during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work that the procedure became widely understood.
Unlike Edward Jenner, a medical doctor who is given broad credit for developing the smallpox vaccine in 1796, Jesty did not publicise his findings made some twenty years earlier in 1774.

Jemima Blackburn

Jenner's understanding of the cuckoo's behaviour was not entirely believed until the artist Jemima Blackburn, a keen observer of bird life, saw a blind nestling pushing out a host's egg.
This behavior had been reported by Edward Jenner in 1788 but dismissed as impossible by Charles Waterton in 1836.

Royal Society of Medicine

FRSMEdward Jenner MedalFellow of the Royal Society of Medicine
Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its founding in 1805 (now the Royal Society of Medicine) and presented several papers there.
Edward Jenner

Dr. Jenner's House

museumsmall museumThe Edward Jenner Museum
Jenner's house in the village of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, is now a small museum, housing, among other things, the horns of the cow, Blossom.
Dr. Jenner's House, formerly known as the Edward Jenner Museum, in Berkeley, England, is housed in a grade II* listed early 18th century building called the Chantry, famous as the home of Edward Jenner FRS, physician, surgeon and pioneer of smallpox vaccination, and now used as a museum.