Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax

Lord HalifaxLord IrwinE. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of HalifaxEdward WoodThe Viscount HalifaxViscount HalifaxHalifaxThe Lord IrwinEdward Frederick Lindley WoodEarl of Halifax
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax, (16 April 1881 – 23 December 1959), styled The 1st Baron Irwin from 1925 until 1934 and The 3rd Viscount Halifax from 1934 until 1944, was a senior British Conservative politician of the 1930s.wikipedia
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War cabinet crisis, May 1940

May 1940 War Cabinet Crisisa series of stormy meetingsbattle over the course of action within the War Cabinet
He was overruled by Churchill after a series of stormy meetings of the War Cabinet.
The main protagonists were Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Foreign Secretary Viscount Halifax.

Churchill war ministry

War CabinetCoalition Governmentwar-time coalition government
He was overruled by Churchill after a series of stormy meetings of the War Cabinet.
At the outset, Churchill formed a five-man War Cabinet which included Chamberlain as Lord President of the Council, Clement Attlee as Lord Privy Seal and later as Deputy Prime Minister, Viscount Halifax as Foreign Secretary and Arthur Greenwood as a Minister without Portfolio.


appeasement of Hitlerappeaseappeaser
He was one of the architects of the policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler in 1936–38, working closely with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
In August 1938, General Ludwig Beck relayed a message to Lord Halifax explaining that most of the German General Staff were preparing a coup against the Fuhrer, but would only attack with "proof that England will fight if Czechoslovakia is attacked".

Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainNevilleArthur Neville Chamberlain
He was one of the architects of the policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler in 1936–38, working closely with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.
Lord Halifax, the Lord President of the Council, visited Germany privately in November and met Hitler and other German officials.

Round Table Conferences (India)

Round Table ConferenceRound Table ConferencesSecond Round Table Conference
In November 1930, King George V opened the First Round Table Conference in London; no Congress delegates took part because Gandhi was in gaol.
They were conducted as per the recommendation of Jinnah to Viceroy Lord Irwin and Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, and by the report submitted by the Simon Commission in May 1930.

Gandhi–Irwin Pact

Gandhi-Irwin PactGandhi Irwin Pactan agreement
The fortnight-long discussions resulted in the Gandhi-Irwin Pact of 5 March 1931, after which the Civil Disobedience Movement and the boycott of British goods were suspended in exchange for a Second Round Table Conference that represented all interests.
The 'Gandhi-Irwin Pact' was a political agreement signed by Mahatma Gandhi and Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India, on 5 March 1931 before the second Round Table Conference in London.

Salt March

Salt SatyagrahaCivil Disobedience MovementDandi March
Gandhi now began a campaign of civil disobedience with a view to achieving complete independence.
The satyagraha against the salt tax continued for almost a year, ending with Gandhi's release from jail and negotiations with Viceroy Lord Irwin at the Second Round Table Conference.

Queen's Own Yorkshire Dragoons

Yorkshire Dragoons1/1st Queen's Own Yorkshire Dragoons2/1st Queen's Own Yorkshire Dragoons
Before the First World War he was already a captain in the Queen's Own Yorkshire Dragoons, a West Riding yeomanry regiment.
Among the regiment's officers was the Hon Edward Wood, MP, later (as Viscount Halifax) Viceroy of India and Foreign Secretary.

Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs

Foreign SecretarySecretary of State for Foreign AffairsBritish Foreign Secretary
He held several senior ministerial posts during this time, most notably those of Viceroy of India from 1925 to 1931 and of Foreign Secretary between 1938 and 1940.

George Lloyd, 1st Baron Lloyd

George LloydSir George LloydLord Lloyd
In 1918, he and George Ambrose Lloyd (later Lord Lloyd) wrote "The Great Opportunity", a tract aiming to set an agenda for a revived Conservative and Unionist Party following the end of the Lloyd George coalition.
In conjunction with Edward Wood (later Earl of Halifax) he wrote The Great Opportunity in 1918.

Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food

Minister of Agriculture and FisheriesPresident of the Board of AgricultureMinister of Agriculture
When the Conservatives were returned to power, on 6 November 1924, Wood was appointed Minister for Agriculture, a more onerous job than Education had been.

Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies

Permanent Under-Secretary of State for the ColoniesMinister of State for the ColoniesMinister of State for Colonial Affairs
In April 1921, he was appointed Under-Secretary for the Colonies, under Churchill who was initially reluctant to meet him (on one occasion he stormed into Churchill's office and told him that he "expected to be treated like a gentleman").

Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax

Charles WoodSir Charles WoodSir Charles Wood, Bt
His paternal grandfather Sir Charles Wood had been Secretary of State for India in 1859–1865.
He was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son Charles, who was the father of Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax.

National Government (1931–1935)

National GovernmentNational II2nd National Min.
He helped Hoare draft what became the Government of India Act 1935, the largest single piece of legislation of the 1931–1935 government.

Secretary of State for Education

President of the Board of EducationSecretary of State for Education and ScienceEducation Secretary
Wood was promoted to the Cabinet on 24 October 1922 as President of the Board of Education.

Simon Commission

Indian Statutory CommissionCommissionThe resulting commission
In November 1927, the composition of the Simon Commission was announced.
An All-India Committee for Cooperation with the Simon Commission was established by the Council of India and by selection of the Viceroy, Lord Irwin.

Hickleton Hall

Hickleton Palace
Wood's childhood was divided mainly between two houses in Yorkshire: Hickleton Hall, near Doncaster, and Garrowby.
He died in 1885 at the Hall, which was then inherited by his son Charles Lindley Wood (1839–1934), the 2nd Viscount and on his death by his son, Edward Wood, the 3rd Viscount Halifax, who was Viceroy of India from 1926 to 1929, Foreign Secretary from 1938 to 1940 and created Earl of Halifax in 1944.

John Simon, 1st Viscount Simon

Sir John SimonJohn SimonViscount Simon
Birkenhead brought forward the date of the commission, and put it under Sir John Simon.
His personality was already something of an issue: Neville Chamberlain wrote of him to the Viceroy of India Lord Irwin (12 August 1928): "I am always trying to like him, and believing I shall succeed when something crops up to put me off".

Bhagat Singh

Shaheed Bhagat SinghSardar Bhagat SinghSecond Lahore Conspiracy Case
However, there was also violence, including the death of Lala Lajpat Rai in November 1928 and the revenge attack of Bhagat Singh in December 1928.
With the matter still unresolved, the Indian Viceroy, Lord Irwin, cut short his vacation in Simla to discuss the situation with jail authorities.

Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood

Samuel HoareSir Samuel HoareSir Samuel Hoare, Bt
In the 1918–1922 Parliament, Wood was an ally of Samuel Hoare, Philip Lloyd-Greame and Walter Elliot, all ambitious younger MPs in favour of progressive reform.
This was too quickly, thought Lord Halifax.

Rab Butler

R. A. ButlerR.A. ButlerButler
With Poland now looking likely to be carved up between Germany and the USSR (as indeed soon took place), the diarist "Chips" Channon, PPS to Halifax's junior minister Rab Butler, recorded (25 August 1939) that "the barometer of war kept shifting" and that "the Polish guarantee was [Halifax]'s pet scheme and favourite god-child" (Butler opposed the guarantee).
With the new Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax in the House of Lords, Butler was the main Foreign Office spokesman in the House of Commons.

Charles Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax

Charles Lindley Wood, 2nd Viscount HalifaxLord HalifaxCharles
He was born into a Yorkshire family, the sixth child and fourth son of Charles Wood, 2nd Viscount Halifax (1839–1934), and Lady Agnes Elizabeth Courtenay (1838–1919).

Guilty Men

Nonetheless, Halifax was criticised as an appeaser, along with Chamberlain, Hoare, and twelve others, in the anonymous 1940 book Guilty Men.

Earl of Halifax

Viscount HalifaxBaron HalifaxBaron Irwin
In 1934 he inherited the title Viscount Halifax on the death of his 94-year-old father.
The fourth creation was in 1944 for Lord Halifax, the former Viceroy of India (who was before his elevation to the earldom the 3rd Viscount Halifax).

F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead

Lord BirkenheadF. E. SmithF.E. Smith
In October 1925, Lord Birkenhead, Secretary of State for India, offered Wood the job of Viceroy of India at the suggestion of King George V.
Even a famous speech, the Rectorial Address to Glasgow University on 7 November 1923, in which Birkenhead told undergraduates that the world still offered "glittering prizes" to those with "stout hearts and sharp swords", now seemed out of kilter with the less aggressive and more self-consciously moral style of politics advocated by the new generation of Conservative politicians such as Stanley Baldwin and Edward Wood, the future Lord Halifax.