Edward the Confessor

King Edward the ConfessorKing EdwardEdward III the ConfessorEdwardSaint Edward the ConfessorSt Edward the ConfessorSt. Edward the ConfessorSt EdwardSaint EdwardSt. Edward
Edward the Confessor (Ēadƿeard Andettere ; Eduardus Confessor, ; c. undefined 1003 – 5 January 1066), also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England.wikipedia
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William the Conqueror

William IWilliam I of EnglandWilliam of Normandy
When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who was defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings.
In the 1050s and early 1060s, William became a contender for the throne of England held by the childless Edward the Confessor, his first cousin once removed.

Battle of Hastings

HastingsBattleThe Battle of Hastings
When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who was defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. Edgar the Ætheling, who was of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks.
The background to the battle was the death of the childless King Edward the Confessor in January 1066, which set up a succession struggle between several claimants to his throne.

House of Godwin

his sonsGodwin familyGodwinsons
Some portray Edward the Confessor's reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, due to the infighting that began after his heirless death.
He retained his position during the reigns of Cnut's sons Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut, and consolidated it when king Edward the Confessor conferred earldoms on Sweyn and Harold, Godwin's two eldest sons by his Danish wife, Gytha.

Edgar Ætheling

Edgar the ÆthelingEdgar AthelingEdgar Aetheling
Edgar the Ætheling, who was of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks.
In 1057, the childless king of England, Edmund Ironside's half-brother Edward the Confessor, who had only recently become aware that his nephew was still alive, summoned Edward back to England with his family to take up his place at court as heir to the throne.

Islip, Oxfordshire

Islip
Edward was born between 1003 and 1005 in Islip, Oxfordshire, and is first recorded as a 'witness' to two charters in 1005.
Edward the Confessor (born circa 1004, died 1066) was born in Islip and tradition holds that he was baptised in a church here.

Æthelred the Unready

Ethelred the UnreadyÆthelred IIÆthelred
Edward was the son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy.
Another of Æthelred's sons, Edward the Confessor, became king in 1042.

Alfred Aetheling

AlfredAlfred ÆthelingAlfred Atheling
He had one full brother, Alfred, and a sister, Godgifu.
He and his brother Edward the Confessor were sons of Æthelred's second wife Emma of Normandy.

Emma of Normandy

EmmaQueen EmmaEmma of England
Edward was the son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy.
She was the mother of three sons, King Edward the Confessor, Alfred Ætheling, and King Harthacnut, as well as two daughters, Goda of England, and Gunhilda of Denmark.

Confessor of the Faith

Confessorconfessorsconfessors of the Faith
Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, as opposed to King Edward the Martyr.
Perhaps the best-known individual associated with the title is the English king St. Edward the Confessor.

Godgifu, daughter of Æthelred the Unready

Goda of EnglandGodaGodgifu
He had one full brother, Alfred, and a sister, Godgifu.
Goda of England or Godgifu; (Godjifu; the Old English name Godgifu or Godgyfu meant "gift of God", Godiva was the Latinised version; 1004 – c. 1047 ) was the daughter of King Ethelred the Unready and his second wife Emma of Normandy, and sister of King Edward the Confessor.

Saint George

St. GeorgeSt GeorgeGeorge
Saint Edward was one of England's national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint in about 1350.
Saint George did not rise to the position of "patron saint" of England, however, until the 14th century, and he was still obscured by Edward the Confessor, the traditional patron saint of England, until in 1552 during the reign of Edward VI all saints' banners other than George's were abolished in the English Reformation.

Robert of Jumièges

RobertArchbishop RobertRobert Champart
He also received support for his claim to the throne from a number of continental abbots, particularly Robert, abbot of the Norman abbey of Jumièges, who was later to become Edward's Archbishop of Canterbury.
He was a good friend and adviser to the king of England, Edward the Confessor, who appointed him Bishop of London in 1044, and then archbishop in 1051.

Godwin, Earl of Wessex

Earl GodwinGodwinGodwin of Wessex
Alfred was captured by Godwin, Earl of Wessex who turned him over to Harold Harefoot.
January – October 1066)) and of Edith of Wessex, who married in 1045 King Edward the Confessor ((r.

Normans

NormanNorman timesAnglo-Norman
When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who was defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings.
When Edward the Confessor finally returned from his father's refuge in 1041, at the invitation of his half-brother Harthacnut, he brought with him a Norman-educated mind.

Edmund Ironside

Edmund IIEdmund II of EnglandEdmund
Æthelred died in April 1016, and he was succeeded by Edward's older half-brother Edmund Ironside, who carried on the fight against Sweyn's son, Cnut.
His mother died around 1000, after which his father remarried, this time to Emma of Normandy, who had two sons, Edward the Confessor and Alfred and a daughter Goda.

Harold Harefoot

Harold IHarold I of EnglandKing Harold I
Alfred was captured by Godwin, Earl of Wessex who turned him over to Harold Harefoot. It was therefore decided that his elder half-brother Harold Harefoot should act as regent, while Emma held Wessex on Harthacnut's behalf.
The Encomium Emmae Reginae also describes Edward the Confessor and Alfred Aetheling as the sons of Canute, though the modern term would be step-sons.

Siward, Earl of Northumbria

SiwardEarl SiwardSiward of Northumbria
In November 1043 he rode to Winchester with his three leading earls, Leofric of Mercia, Godwin and Siward of Northumbria, to deprive her of her property, possibly because she was holding on to treasure which belonged to the king.
He exerted his power in support of Cnut's successors, kings Harthacnut and Edward, assisting them with vital military aid and counsel.

Edith of Wessex

EdithQueen EdithCaela
In 1043 Godwin's eldest son Sweyn was appointed to an earldom in the south-west midlands, and on 23 January 1045 Edward married Godwin's daughter Edith.
Her husband was Edward the Confessor, whom she married on 23 January 1045.

Harold Godwinson

King HaroldHaroldHarold II
When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who was defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings.
Upon the death of his brother-in-law King Edward the Confessor on 5 January 1066, the Witenagemot convened and chose Harold to succeed; he was the first English monarch to be crowned in Westminster Abbey.

Stigand

Archbishop StigandArchbishop of CanterburyStigand the archbishop
Her adviser, Stigand, was deprived of his bishopric of Elmham in East Anglia.
When Cnut's stepson Edward the Confessor succeeded Harthacnut, Stigand in all probability became England's main administrator.

Pope Alexander III

Alexander IIIPope AlexanderPope
About a century later, in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the king.
This was the second English saint canonized by Alexander, the first being Edward the Confessor in 1161.

Robert I, Duke of Normandy

Robert IRobert I the MagnificentRobert the Magnificent
According to the Norman chronicler, William of Jumièges, Robert I, Duke of Normandy attempted an invasion of England to place Edward on the throne in about 1034, but it was blown off course to Jersey.
His cousins, the Athelings Edward and Alfred, sons of his aunt Emma of Normandy and Athelred, King of England had been living at the Norman Court and at one point Robert, on their behalf, attempted to mount an invasion of England but was prevented in doing so, it was said, by unfavorable winds, that scattered and sank much of the fleet.

Macbeth, King of Scotland

MacbethMacbeth of ScotlandMac Bethad mac Findlaích
Malcolm Canmore was an exile at Edward's court after his father, Duncan I, was in 1040 killed in battle against men led by Macbeth who seized the Scottish throne.
His 17-year reign was mostly peaceful, although in 1054 he was faced with an English invasion, led by Siward, Earl of Northumbria, on behalf of Edward the Confessor.

Leofric, Earl of Mercia

LeofricEarl LeofricLeofric of Mercia
In November 1043 he rode to Winchester with his three leading earls, Leofric of Mercia, Godwin and Siward of Northumbria, to deprive her of her property, possibly because she was holding on to treasure which belonged to the king.
When Harthacnut died suddenly in 1042, he was succeeded by his half-brother Edward the Confessor.

Tostig Godwinson

TostigEarl Tostigthe family of Norse Noblemen
In 1055 Siward died but his son was considered too young to command Northumbria, and Harold's brother, Tostig was appointed.
In the 19th century the antiquarian Edward Augustus Freeman posited a hypothesis claiming that Edward the Confessor was pursuing a policy of "Normanization" of England and by doing so was reducing the influence of the Godwins.