Edwardian era

EdwardianEdwardian periodEdwardian EnglandEdwardiansEdwardian timesEdwardian-eraEdwardian ageEdwardian erasEdwardian styleEdwardian years
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history spanned the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended to the start of the First World War.wikipedia
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Victorian era

VictorianVictorian-eraVictorian period
The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era.
The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, and its later half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe.

Edward VII

King Edward VIIPrince of WalesEdward VII of the United Kingdom
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history spanned the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended to the start of the First World War.
The Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including steam turbine propulsion and the rise of socialism.

Picture hat

Gainsborough hatpicture
Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag."
Styles were simpler than those worn in the Edwardian era – following the prevailing fashion of cloches by including a more close-fitting crown to flatter shorter hairstyles.

History of the British Isles

British historyBritishhistory of Britain
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history spanned the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended to the start of the First World War.
The era was preceded by the Regency era and succeeded by the Edwardian period.

Domestic worker

servantdomestic servantdomestic service
Below the upper class, the era was marked by significant shifts in politics among sections of society that had largely been excluded from power, such as labourers, servants, and the industrial working class.
In Britain a highly developed system of domestic service peaked towards the close of the Victorian era, perhaps reaching its most complicated and rigidly structured state during the Edwardian period (a period known in the United States as the Gilded Age and in France as the Belle Époque), which reflected the limited social mobility before World War I.

Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe

Lord NorthcliffeAlfred HarmsworthNorthcliffe
Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe was the chief innovator.
As owner of the Daily Mail and the Daily Mirror, he was an early developer of popular journalism, and he exercised vast influence over British popular opinion during the Edwardian era.

Belle Époque

Belle EpoqueLa Belle ÉpoqueBelle-Époque
The Edwardian era corresponds to the French Belle Époque.
In the United Kingdom, the Belle Époque overlapped with the late Victorian era and the Edwardian era in a period known as Pax Britannica; in Germany, it coincided with the reigns of William I, Frederick III and the Wilhelminism of Wilhelm II; in Italy, with the reigns of Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I and early of the reign of Victor Emmanuel III; in Spain, with the period known as the Restoration during the reigns of Alfonso XII and Alfonso XIII; in Portugal, the period was known as the Fontismo; in Romania, with the reign of Carol I in Greece, with the reign of George I; in Russia, with the reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II; in Denmark, with the reigns of Christian IX and Frederick VIII; in Sweden and Norway, with the reign of Oscar II; in the Netherlands, with the reigns of William III and Wilhelmina; in Belgium, with the reign of Leopold II and early of the reign of Albert I; in Switzerland, it coincided with the beginnings of the Swiss federal state; in Austria-Hungary, with the reign of Franz Joseph I; in Serbia, with the reign of Peter I; in Canada, it coincided with the beginnings of the Canadian Confederation; in the United States, emerging from the Panic of 1873, the comparable period was the Gilded Age (1870s-1900s) ; in Australia, it coincided with the period known as the Australian Gold Rush; in Brazil, it started with the end of the Paraguayan War; and in Mexico, the period was known as the Porfiriato.

Saki

H. H. MunroHector Hugh Munro Hector Hugh Munro
In fiction, some of the best-known names are J. M. Barrie, Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster, John Galsworthy, Kenneth Grahame, M. R. James, Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, A. A. Milne, D. H. Lawrence, E. Nesbit, Beatrix Potter, Saki, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and P. G. Wodehouse.
H. Munro''', was a British writer whose witty, mischievous and sometimes macabre stories satirize Edwardian society and culture.

Liberal welfare reforms

Liberal reformswelfare reformsreforms
The Liberals returned to power in 1906 and made significant reforms.
* Edwardian era

Edward Elgar

ElgarSir Edward ElgarElgar, Edward
Henry Wood, Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Arnold Bax, George Butterworth, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Thomas Beecham were all active.
In musical circles dominated by academics, he was a self-taught composer; in Protestant Britain, his Roman Catholicism was regarded with suspicion in some quarters; and in the class-conscious society of Victorian and Edwardian Britain, he was acutely sensitive about his humble origins even after he achieved recognition.

P. G. Wodehouse

P.G. WodehouseWodehousePG Wodehouse
In fiction, some of the best-known names are J. M. Barrie, Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster, John Galsworthy, Kenneth Grahame, M. R. James, Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, A. A. Milne, D. H. Lawrence, E. Nesbit, Beatrix Potter, Saki, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and P. G. Wodehouse.
He used a mixture of Edwardian slang, quotations from and allusions to numerous poets, and several literary techniques to produce a prose style that has been compared to comic poetry and musical comedy.

John Galsworthy

GalsworthyJohn and Ada GalsworthyStrife
In fiction, some of the best-known names are J. M. Barrie, Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster, John Galsworthy, Kenneth Grahame, M. R. James, Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, A. A. Milne, D. H. Lawrence, E. Nesbit, Beatrix Potter, Saki, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and P. G. Wodehouse.
He is viewed as one of the first writers of the Edwardian era who challenged some of the ideals of society depicted in the preceding literature of Victorian England.

Edwardian Baroque architecture

Edwardian BaroqueWrenaissanceEdwardian
In spite of the popularity of Art Nouveau in Europe, the Edwardian Baroque style of architecture was widely favoured for public structures and was a revival of Christopher Wren–inspired designs of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.
Edwardian Baroque is the Neo-Baroque architectural style of many public buildings built in the British Empire during the Edwardian era (1901–1910).

Music hall

music-hallmusic hallsmusic-halls
Social factors included secularised elementary education (with a disappearing role for Dissenting schools that inculcated Liberal viewpoints); the "New Unionism" after 1890 brought unskilled workers into a movement previously dominated by the skilled workers; and new leisure activities, especially the music hall and sports, involved youth while repelling the older generation of Liberal voters.
It was restored in 1986, and is a fine example of the late Edwardian style.

Thomas Beecham

Sir Thomas BeechamBeechamBeecham Opera Company
Henry Wood, Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Arnold Bax, George Butterworth, Ralph Vaughan Williams, and Thomas Beecham were all active.
In the Edwardian opera house, the star singers were regarded as all-important, and conductors were seen as ancillary.

H. G. Wells

H.G. WellsWellsH G Wells
In fiction, some of the best-known names are J. M. Barrie, Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster, John Galsworthy, Kenneth Grahame, M. R. James, Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, A. A. Milne, D. H. Lawrence, E. Nesbit, Beatrix Potter, Saki, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and P. G. Wodehouse.
He also wrote realistic novels that received critical acclaim, including Kipps and a critique of English culture during the Edwardian period, Tono-Bungay.

Mitchell and Kenyon

Mitchell & KenyonElectric EdwardiansPeter Worden collection of Mitchell and Kenyon films
Filmmakers Mitchell and Kenyon documented many scenes from Britain and Ireland from 1900–1907, sports, parades, factory exits, parks, city streets, boating and the like.
This collection provides a fresh view of Edwardian era Britain and is an important resource for historians.

E. M. Forster

E.M. ForsterE M ForsterEdward Morgan Forster
In fiction, some of the best-known names are J. M. Barrie, Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster, John Galsworthy, Kenneth Grahame, M. R. James, Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, A. A. Milne, D. H. Lawrence, E. Nesbit, Beatrix Potter, Saki, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and P. G. Wodehouse.
Howards End (1910) is an ambitious "condition-of-England" novel concerned with different groups within the Edwardian middle classes, represented by the Schlegels (bohemian intellectuals), the Wilcoxes (thoughtless plutocrats) and the Basts (struggling lower-middle-class aspirants).

Robert Falcon Scott

ScottCaptain ScottRobert F. Scott
By the end of the era, Louis Blériot had crossed the English Channel by air; the largest ship in the world, RMS Olympic, had sailed on its maiden voyage and her larger sister RMS Titanic was under construction; automobiles were common; and the South Pole was reached for the first time by Roald Amundsen's and then Robert Falcon Scott's teams.
Scott, who because of his Discovery fame had entered Edwardian society, first met Kathleen Bruce early in 1907 at a private luncheon party.

Herbert Beerbohm Tree

Sir Herbert Beerbohm TreeSir Herbert TreeBeerbohm Tree
The actor/manager system, as managed by Sir Henry Irving, Sir George Alexander, and Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree, was in decline.
Under Tree, however, Her (later His) Majesty's Theatre was most famous for its work with Shakespeare, building an international reputation as the premier British playhouse for his works during the Edwardian era, which had for so long belonged to Henry Irving at the Lyceum Theatre during the Victorian period.

A. A. Milne

A.A. MilneAA MilneA A Milne
In fiction, some of the best-known names are J. M. Barrie, Arnold Bennett, G. K. Chesterton, Joseph Conrad, E. M. Forster, John Galsworthy, Kenneth Grahame, M. R. James, Rudyard Kipling, James Joyce, A. A. Milne, D. H. Lawrence, E. Nesbit, Beatrix Potter, Saki, George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells and P. G. Wodehouse.

Harley Granville-Barker

Harley Granville BarkerGranville BarkerBarker
Maugham's plays, like his novels, usually had a conventional plot structure, but the decade also saw the rise of the so-called New Drama, represented in plays by George Bernard Shaw, Harley Granville Barker, and Continental imports by Henrik Ibsen and Gerhardt Hauptmann.

Queen Victoria

VictoriaVictoria of the United KingdomDiamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria
The death of Queen Victoria in January 1901 marked the end of the Victorian era.

Samuel Hynes

Samuel Hynes described the Edwardian era as a "leisurely time when women wore picture hats and did not vote, when the rich were not ashamed to live conspicuously, and the sun really never set on the British flag."