Effects of stress on memory

Chronic stress can lead to memory losscortisol inhibits memory retrievalimpairs memorymemory functionmemory problemsmemory skillsstress can alter memory functions
The effects of stress on memory include interference with a person's capacity to encode memory and the ability to retrieve information.wikipedia
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Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressemotional stress
During times of stress, the body reacts by secreting stress hormones into the bloodstream.
Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, reward, immune function, metabolism and susceptibility to diseases.

Cortisol

stress hormonestress hormoneshydrocortisone
During times of stress, the body reacts by secreting stress hormones into the bloodstream. One class of stress hormone responsible for negatively affecting long-term, delayed recall memory is the glucocorticoids (GCs), the most notable of which is cortisol.
Furthermore, cortisol inhibits memory retrieval of already stored information.

Memory

memorieshuman memorymemory formation
The effects of stress on memory include interference with a person's capacity to encode memory and the ability to retrieve information.
This research on the effects of stress on memory may have practical implications for education, for eyewitness testimony and for psychotherapy: students may perform better when tested in their regular classroom rather than an exam room, eyewitnesses may recall details better at the scene of an event than in a courtroom, and persons suffering from post-traumatic stress may improve when helped to situate their memories of a traumatic event in an appropriate context.

Chronic stress

stresschronicchronic high stress
When chronic stress is experienced, our body is in a state of continuous physiological arousal.
Regarding to effects on the brain, chronic stress inhibits neuron growth inside the hippocampus (which impairs memory).

Encoding (memory)

encodingencodedmemory encoding
The effects of stress on memory include interference with a person's capacity to encode memory and the ability to retrieve information.

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
In particular, the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and the amygdala are affected.

Glucocorticoid

glucocorticoidssteroidssteroid
One class of stress hormone responsible for negatively affecting long-term, delayed recall memory is the glucocorticoids (GCs), the most notable of which is cortisol.

Negative feedback

negative feedback loopnegative-feedbacknegative
Under normal circumstances, the hippocampus regulates the production of cortisol through negative feedback because it has many receptors that are sensitive to these stress hormones.

Receptor (biochemistry)

receptorreceptorscellular receptors
Under normal circumstances, the hippocampus regulates the production of cortisol through negative feedback because it has many receptors that are sensitive to these stress hormones.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
Adrenaline is released by the adrenal glands to begin the response in the body.

Adrenal gland

adrenal glandsadrenalsuprarenal gland
Adrenaline is released by the adrenal glands to begin the response in the body.

Catalysis

catalyzescatalysescatalyst
Adrenaline acts as a catalyst for the fight-or-flight response, which is a response of the sympathetic nervous system to encourage the body to react to the apparent stressor.

Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
Adrenaline acts as a catalyst for the fight-or-flight response, which is a response of the sympathetic nervous system to encourage the body to react to the apparent stressor.

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
Adrenaline acts as a catalyst for the fight-or-flight response, which is a response of the sympathetic nervous system to encourage the body to react to the apparent stressor.

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
The kidneys release glucose, providing energy to combat or flee the stressor.

Hypothalamus

hypothalamicanterior hypothalamushypothalamic hormones
When a receptor within the body senses a stressor, a signal is sent to the anterior hypothalamus.

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

CRHcorticotropin releasing hormoneCRF
At the reception of the signal, corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) acts on the anterior pituitary.

Anterior pituitary

anterior pituitary glandanterior lobeanterior lobe of the pituitary gland
The anterior pituitary in turn releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

ACTHcorticotropinadrenocorticotrophic hormone
The anterior pituitary in turn releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
ACTH induces the release of corticosteriods and aldosterone from the adrenal gland.

Aldosterone

receptors, aldosteroneadrenoglomerulotropin
ACTH induces the release of corticosteriods and aldosterone from the adrenal gland.

Fatty acid

fatty acidsfree fatty acidsfree fatty acid
Cortisol for example stimulates the mobilization of free fatty acids and proteins and the breakdown of amino acids, and increases serum glucose level and blood pressure, among other effects.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
Cortisol for example stimulates the mobilization of free fatty acids and proteins and the breakdown of amino acids, and increases serum glucose level and blood pressure, among other effects.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
As a result of cells retaining sodium and eliminating potassium, water is retained and blood pressure is increased by increasing the blood volume.

Vasopressin

antidiuretic hormoneADHarginine vasopressin
Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is synthesized by the neurons in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and regulates fluid loss by manipulating the urinary tract.