Effusive eruption

effusiveeffusive activityeffusive volcanismlava eruptionseffusionLava effusionbegins to shakeeffusionseffusive volcanicfluid lava flows
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground.wikipedia
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Types of volcanic eruptions

volcanic eruptioneruptionvolcanic eruptions
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground.
There are two types of eruptions in terms of activity, explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions.

Explosive eruption

explosiveexplosive activityexplosive eruptions
Effusive eruption differs from explosive eruption, wherein magma is violently fragmented and rapidly expelled from a volcano.
Effusive eruption

Lava

lava flowlava flowspahoehoe
An effusive eruption is a type of volcanic eruption in which lava steadily flows out of a volcano onto the ground. The shape of effusive lava flows is governed by the type of lava (i.e. composition), rate and duration of eruption, and topography of the surrounding landscape. These eruptions form lava flows and lava domes, each of which vary in shape, length, and width.
A lava flow is a moving outpouring of lava created during a non-explosive effusive eruption.

Shield volcano

shield volcanoesshieldlava shield
This type of lava flow builds shield volcanoes, which are numerous in Hawaii, and is how the island was and currently is being formed.
Shield volcanoes are built by effusive eruptions, which flow out in all directions to create a shield like that of a warrior.

Volcanism

volcanicvolcanic activityvulcanism
The ascent speed of the magma is the most important factor controlling which type of eruption it will be. For silicic magmas to erupt effusively, the ascent rate must be 10^{-5}to 10^{-2} m/s, with permeable conduit walls, so that gas has time to exsolve and dissipate into the surrounding rock.
Viscous (thick) magma produces volcanoes characterised by explosive eruptions, while non-viscous (runny) magma produce volcanoes characterised by effusive eruptions pouring large amounts of lava onto the surface.

Magma

magmaticmeltmagmas
Effusive eruption differs from explosive eruption, wherein magma is violently fragmented and rapidly expelled from a volcano.

Intermediate composition

intermediateintermediate rockintermediate chemical composition
Effusive eruptions are most common in basaltic magmas, but they also occur in intermediate and felsic magmas.

Felsic

felsic typeleucocraticfelsic rock
Effusive eruptions are most common in basaltic magmas, but they also occur in intermediate and felsic magmas.

Volatiles

volatileicesice
A volcanic eruption is effusive when the erupting magma is volatile poor (water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride), which suppresses fragmentation, creating an oozing magma which spills out of the volcanic vent and out into the surrounding area.

Chemical composition

compositionchemically composedcomposed
The shape of effusive lava flows is governed by the type of lava (i.e. composition), rate and duration of eruption, and topography of the surrounding landscape.

Reynolds number

ReynoldsRelow Reynolds
This threshold is governed by the Reynolds Number, a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics that is directly proportional to fluid velocity.

Fluid dynamics

hydrodynamicshydrodynamicfluid flow
This threshold is governed by the Reynolds Number, a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics that is directly proportional to fluid velocity.

Velocity

velocitiesvelocity vectorlinear velocity
This threshold is governed by the Reynolds Number, a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics that is directly proportional to fluid velocity.

Silicic

silica-richsilicic rock
Silicic magma also exhibits this transition between effusive and explosive eruptions, but the fragmentation mechanism differs.

Novarupta

The 1912 Novarupta eruption and the 2003 Stromboli eruption both exhibited a transition between explosive and effusive eruption patterns.

Stromboli

30 December 2002Mount StomboliMt. Stromboli
The 1912 Novarupta eruption and the 2003 Stromboli eruption both exhibited a transition between explosive and effusive eruption patterns.

Basalt

basalticcolumnar basaltbasalts
Basaltic composition magmas are the most common effusive eruptions because they are not water saturated and have low viscosity.

Hawaii

State of HawaiiHIHawaiian Islands
This type of lava flow builds shield volcanoes, which are numerous in Hawaii, and is how the island was and currently is being formed.

Country rock (geology)

country rockcountry rockscountry
Degassing prior to eruption, through fractures in the country rock surrounding the magma chamber, plays an important role.

Lava dome

lava domesdomecryptodome
These eruptions form lava flows and lava domes, each of which vary in shape, length, and width.

Volcanology of Northern Canada

The region's different volcano and lava types originate from different tectonic settings and types of volcanic eruptions, ranging from passive lava eruptions to violent explosive eruptions.

Volcanology of Eastern Canada

The region's different volcano and lava types originate from different tectonic settings and types of volcanic eruptions, ranging from passive lava eruptions to violent explosive eruptions.

Volcanology of Canada

The country's different volcano and lava types originate from different tectonic settings and types of volcanic eruptions, ranging from passive lava eruptions to violent explosive eruptions.

Temagami Greenstone Belt

They were created during several volcanic episodes involving a variety of eruptive styles ranging from passive lava eruptions to viscous explosive eruptions.

List of largest volcanic eruptions

8About 40 eruptionsfifth-largest
Volcanic eruptions can generally be characterized as either explosive eruptions, sudden ejections of rock and ash, or effusive eruptions, relatively gentle outpourings of lava.