Egypt

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Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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The Sinai Peninsula with the Gulf of Aqaba to the east and the Gulf of Suez to the west

Gulf of Aqaba

Large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian Peninsula.

Large gulf at the northern tip of the Red Sea, east of the Sinai Peninsula and west of the Arabian Peninsula.

The Sinai Peninsula with the Gulf of Aqaba to the east and the Gulf of Suez to the west
The Sinai Peninsula separating the Gulf of Suez to the west and the Gulf of Aqaba, to the east.
View of the Gulf of Aqaba near Nuweiba, Egypt.
The city of Aqaba is the largest on the gulf
"Isle of Graia Gulf of Akabah Arabia Petraea", 1839 lithograph of a trade caravan in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia, by Louis Haghe from an original by David Roberts.
Coral World Underwater Observatory at Eilat
Taba beach
Red Sea coral and marine fish
A resort near Eilat's Coral Beach

Its coastline is divided among four countries: Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia.

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC

Alexandria

Plan of Alexandria c. 30 BC
Alexander the Great
The Lighthouse of Alexandria on coins minted in Alexandria in the second century (1: reverse of a coin of Antoninus Pius, and 2: reverse of a coin of Commodus).
Alexandria in the late 18th century, by Luigi Mayer
Entry of General Bonaparte into Alexandria, oil on canvas, 365 x,, Versailles
The Battle of Abukir, by Antoine-Jean Gros 1806
Alexandria: bombardment by British naval forces
Map of the city in the 1780s, by Louis-François Cassas.
Macedonian Army, shown on the Alexander Sarcophagus.
Engraving by L. F. Cassas of the Canopic Street in Alexandria, Egypt made in 1784.
Satellite image of Alexandria and other cities show its surrounding coastal plain
Lake Mariout
Egypt – Obelisk, Alexandria. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection.
Roman Amphitheater
Roman Pompey's Pillar
Saint Mark's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral
Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa
Side view of The Temple of Taposiris Magna.
Citadel of Qaitbay
Jewish girls during Bat Mitzva in Alexandria
Collège Saint Marc
Lycée Français d'Alexandrie
Borg El Arab International Airport
Alexandria port
Misr Railway Station
An Alexandria tram
The Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Alexandria Stadium
The Italian consulate in Saad Zaghloul Square
Shalalat Gardens
Montaza Garden
Alexandria Art Centre
Alexandria Opera House
Fawzia Fahmy Palace
Alexander the Great's statue
Monument of the Unknown Navy Soldier
Montaza Palace
Al Qa'ed Ibrahim Mosque

Alexandria ( or ; الإسكندرية ; ) is a Mediterranean port city in Egypt.

The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures

Giza pyramid complex

The three main pyramids at Giza, together with subsidiary pyramids and the remains of other structures
Giza pyramid complex (map)
Aerial view from north of cultivated Nile valley with the pyramids in the background
Pyramids of Ghizeh. 1893. Egypt; heliogravure after original views. Wilbour Library of Egyptology. Brooklyn Museum
The Great Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza in 1914 (Autochrome Lumière).
The complex in 1955
The Great Sphinx partially excavated, photo taken between 1867 and 1899
The Giza pyramid complex at night
One face of the Pyramid of Khafre in Giza, as seen from Khafre's valley temple
Giza pyramid complex seen from above
The Dream Stele between the Sphinx's front legs

The Giza pyramid complex (مجمع أهرامات الجيزة), also called the Giza necropolis, is the site on the Giza Plateau in Greater Cairo, Egypt that includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre, and the Pyramid of Menkaure, along with their associated pyramid complexes and the Great Sphinx of Giza.

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.

Ancient Egypt

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles (Predynastic Period)
Early tomb painting from Nekhen, c. 3500 BC, Naqada, possibly Gerzeh, culture
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
Khafre enthroned
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
The Egyptian Empire c. 1450 BC
Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel
Statues of two pharaohs of Egypt's Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and several other Kushite kings. From left to right: Tantamani, Taharqa (rear), Senkamanisken, again Tantamani (rear), Aspelta, Anlamani, again Senkamanisken. Kerma Museum.
Assyrian siege of an Egyptian fortified city, a scene from the Assyrian conquest of Egypt, probably referring to the capture of Memphis in 667 BC. Sculpted in 645–635 BC, under Ashurbanipal. British Museum.
Portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the double crown of Egypt
The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
Painted limestone relief of a noble member of Ancient Egyptian society during the New Kingdom
Punishment in ancient Egypt
The Seated Scribe from Saqqara, Fifth dynasty of Egypt; scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes (Eighteenth Dynasty).
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, c. 1321 BC
The Rosetta Stone (c. 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the process of deciphering ancient Egyptian scripts.
Ostrakon: hunting a lion with spear and dog
Lower-class occupations
Egyptians celebrated feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art
The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.
A chariot
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo
Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC), written in hieratic, describes anatomy and medical treatments.
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut's Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition
Astronomical chart in Senemut's tomb, 18th dynasty
Model of a household porch and garden, c. 1981–1975 BC
The Temple of Dendur, completed by 10 BC, made of aeolian sandstone, temple proper: height: 6.4 m, width: 6.4 m; length: 12.5 m, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The well preserved Temple of Isis from Philae is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture
Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius
Egyptian tomb models as funerary goods. Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Kneeling portrait statue of Amenemhat holding a stele with an inscription; c. 1500 BC; limestone; Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Germany)
Fresco which depicts Nebamun hunting birds; 1350 BC; paint on plaster; 98 × 83 cm; British Museum (London)
Portrait head of pharaoh Hatshepsut or Thutmose III; 1480–1425 BC; most probably granite; height: 16.5 cm; Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Falcon box with wrapped contents; 332–30 BC; painted and gilded wood, linen, resin and feathers; 58.5 × 24.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frontispiece of Description de l'Égypte, published in 38 volumes between 1809 and 1829.
Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeast Africa, situated in the Egyptian Nile Valley in the country Egypt.

Jordan

Country in Western Asia.

Country in Western Asia.

The 'Ain Ghazal Statues (c. 7250 BC) of Amman are some of the oldest human statues ever found.
The Mesha Stele (c. 840 BC) records the glory of Mesha, King of Moab
Al-Khazneh in Petra (c. 1st century AD), is believed to be the mausoleum of the Arab Nabataean King Aretas IV.
The Oval Forum of Jerash (c. 1st century AD), then member of the ten-city Roman league, the Decapolis. Seven out of the ten Decapolis cities are present in modern-day Jordan.
The earliest detailed map of the land which became Jordan, showing the travels of Johann Ludwig Burckhardt (the first European to see Petra since the Crusades) in 1822
Soldiers of the Hashemite-led Arab Army holding the flag of the Great Arab Revolt in 1916
Al-Salt residents gather on 20 August 1920 during the British High Commissioner's visit to Transjordan.
King Abdullah I on 25 May 1946 reading the declaration of independence.
King Hussein on 21 March 1968 checking an abandoned Israeli tank in the aftermath of the Battle of Karameh.
Army Chief Habis Majali and Prime Minister Wasfi Tal during a military parade in 1970, two widely acclaimed national figures.
Wadi Rum's resemblance to the surface of Mars has made it a popular filming and tourist attraction.
The Dead Sea is the lowest point on earth.
A forest in Ajloun, northern Jordan.
The House of Representatives during a parliamentary session
U.S. President Donald Trump and First Lady Melania Trump with King Abdullah II and Queen Rania of Jordan at the White House, 2017.
An Amman City Centre Police patrol vehicle.
Change in per capita GDP of Jordan, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International Geary-Khamis dollars.
View of a part of the capital Amman
Queen Alia International Airport near Amman was chosen as the best airport in the Middle East for 2014 and 2015 by ASQ.
Al-Maghtas ruins on the Jordanian side of the Jordan River, believed by many to have been the location of the Baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist
The Dana Biosphere Reserve in southern Jordan lies along the Jordan Trail, a hiking path that is gaining popularity
A phosphate train at Ram station
The Aqaba Flagpole in the southernmost city of Aqaba, Jordan's only coastal outlet
The 117 MW Tafila Wind Farm in southern Jordan is the first and largest onshore wind farm in the Middle East.
An aerial view of a portion of the Zaatari refugee camp which contains a population of 80,000 Syrian refugees, the largest Syrian refugee camp in the world.
Jordanian school girls pictured reading in a public school. Jordan's total youth female literacy rate (15 – 24 years) was 99.37% in 2015.
Jordanian folklore band playing bagpipes in Jerash.
Mansaf, the traditional dish of Jordan. Inspired from Bedouin culture, it is a symbol of Jordanian hospitality.

The Gulf of Aqaba separates Jordan from Egypt.

Population density of Africa (2000)

North Africa

Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent.

Population density of Africa (2000)
Women in Tunisia (1922)
Market of Biskra in Algeria, 1899
The kasbah of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
The first Roman emperor native to North Africa was Septimius Severus, born in Leptis Magna in present-day Libya.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia, founded by Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi in 670, is one of the oldest and most important mosques in North Africa.
1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Ottoman held regions of North Africa

There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in the west, to Egypt's Suez Canal.

View of the central East Valley, showing area around KV62.

Valley of the Kings

View of the central East Valley, showing area around KV62.
Stratigraphy of the valley
The "Sepulchres of the Kings of Thebes", Richard Pococke, 1743
Al-Qurn dominates the valley.
1820: Belzoni's Valley of the Kings
1830: John Gardner Wilkinson's numbering system for the tombs, which remains in use today
Entrance to a royal tomb, drawn in 1821
Entrance to Horemheb's tomb, soon after its discovery in 1908
Detail of decoration from KV2
Pillar in Seti I's tomb
Typical "Bent axis" early Eighteenth Dynasty tomb
Typical "Jogged axis" post-Amarna tomb
Typical "Straight axis" Nineteenth/Twentieth Dynasty tomb
Merenptah's stone sarcophagus in KV8
First (upper) burial hall in the tomb of Twosret and Setnakhte, KV14; scenes from the Book of Caverns are depicted on the far wall
Corridor descending to the Tomb of Ramesses III, KV11
Burial chamber in the Tomb of Ramesses IX, KV6
KV62 found undisturbed in 1922
Papyrus Mayer B. The script is the common hieratic of the 20th Dynasty and consists of 14 lines of writing. It records theft in the tomb of Ramesses VI

The Valley of the Kings (وادي الملوك Wādī al-Mulūk; Late Coptic: ), also known as the Valley of the Gates of the Kings (وادي أبواب الملوك Wādī Abwāb al-Mulūk), is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, rock-cut tombs were excavated for the pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom (the Eighteenth to the Twentieth Dynasties of Ancient Egypt).

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall from the Precinct of Amun-Re

Karnak

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall from the Precinct of Amun-Re
Open papyrus umbel capitals and architrave on the central columns of the Hypostyle Hall
Gate at Karnak. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection
Obelisks of Hatshepsut: a tall obelisk stands above a field of rubble and bricks; in the foreground lies the top of another obelisk.
The Great Hypostyle Hall
Hieroglyphs from the great obelisk of Karnak, transcribed by Ippolito Rosellini in 1828
Photograph of the temple complex taken in 1914, Cornell University Library
The Precinct of Amun-Re as seen from the Sacred Lake
Map of the Precinct of Mut, showing the sacred crescent lake of Mut
Ruins in the Precinct of Montu
Luxor dromos, an avenue of human headed sphinxes which once connected the temples of Karnak and Luxor.
The Sacred Lake of Precinct of Amun-Re
View of the first pylon of the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak
Ram-headed sphinx statues at Karnak
Hypostyle hall of the Precinct of Amun-Re, as it appeared in 1838 in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
Colossal statue of Ramses II
Open papyrus umbel capitals of the Hypostyle Hall.
Closed papyrus umbel capitals of the Hypostyle Hall.
Obelisk of Thutmosis I in Karnak
Statue of Khepri in Karnak
Egypt - Karnak. Gate and Pylon., n.d., Brooklyn Museum Archives
Egypt - Karnak. Great Statues., n.d., Goodyear. Brooklyn Museum Archives

The Karnak Temple Complex, commonly known as Karnak (, which was originally derived from خورنق Khurnaq "fortified village" ), comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, pylons, chapels, and other buildings near Luxor, Egypt.

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina

Memphis, Egypt

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

The ancient capital of Inebu-hedj, the first nome of Lower Egypt that was known as mḥw ("north").

Ruins of the pillared hall of Ramesses II at Mit Rahina
Memphis and its necropolis Saqqara as seen from the International Space Station
Ritualistic object depicting the god Nefertem, who was mainly worshipped in Memphis, The Walters Art Museum
Rameses II flanked by Ptah and Sekhmet
Sculpture from the Middle Kingdom restored in the name of Rameses II
Relief representing the High Priest of Ptah, Shoshenq
Ruins of the palace of Apries, in Memphis
Alexander at the Temple of Apis in Memphis, by Andre Castaigne (1898–1899)
Artist's depiction of the western forecourt of the Great Temple of Ptah at Memphis
Column depicting Merenptah making an offering to Ptah
The ruins of the temple of Hathor of Memphis
A statue of the sacred bull, Apis, found at the Serapeum of Saqqara.
Ankhefenmut kneels before the royal cartouche of Siamun, on a lintel from the Temple of Amun in Memphis
The colossus of Rameses II in the open-air museum
The famed stepped Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara, the Memphis necropolis
The ruins of the palace of Apries, overlooking Memphis
James Rennell's map of Memphis and Cairo in 1799, showing the changes in the course of the Nile river
Statue of Rameses II, uncovered in Memphis by Joseph Hekekyan
Museum worker in the process of cleaning the Rameses II colossus
Depiction of Ptah found on the walls of the Temple of Hathor
The alabaster sphinx found outside the Temple of Ptah
Statue of Rameses II in the open-air museum
Closeup of the sphinx outside the Temple of Ptah
Colossus of Rameses II

Its ruins are located near the modern town of Mit Rahina (ميت رهينة), 20 km (12 mi) south of Giza in Greater Cairo, Egypt.

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia

Thebes, Egypt

Ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 km south of the Mediterranean.

Ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 km south of the Mediterranean.

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
Population of Thebes 2000-900 BC
The Theban Necropolis
Serekh of Intef I inscribed posthumously for him by Mentuhotep II
Depiction of Asiatic (left) and Egyptian people (right). The Asiatic leader is labeled as "Ruler of foreign lands", Ibsha.
Statues of Memnon at Thebes during the flood, after David Roberts, c. 1845
Overhead illustration of the Karnak temple
The Ramesseum at Thebes, by John Frederick Lewis, c. 1845 (Yale Center for British Art, New Haven)
Polychromed column with bass-reliefs at the temple of Medinet Habu, dedicated to Rameses III
A column of Taharqa at the precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak Temple restored to full height
Relief in Hathor temple, Deir el-Medina (built during the Ptolemaic Dynasty)
The main entrance to Karnak flanked by ram-headed sphinxes
Obelisk, Ramesside colossi and great pylon of Luxor Temple with subtle orange glow
Sunshine illuminates Hatshepsut's mortuary temple in Deir al-Bahri
The entrance to KV19, tomb of Mentuherkhepeshef in the Valley of the Kings

Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor.