Egyptian conquest of Sudan (1820–1824)

conquered Sudanconquest of the SudanEgyptian conquest of 1820Egyptian conquest of SudanOttoman Egyptian invasionSudan was incorporated into EgyptSudanese slavesTurko-Egyptian invasion of 1821
The Egyptian conquest of Sudan was a major military and technical feat.wikipedia
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Muhammad Ali of Egypt

Muhammad AliMuhammad Ali PashaMohammed Ali
Muhammad Ali, the Khedive of Egypt, wanted a large and steady supply of slaves to train into a modern army so he could deploy it in other parts of his empire to further his grand territorial ambitions.
Militarily, Muhammad Ali recaptured the Arabian territories for the sultan, and conquered Sudan on his own accord.

Funj Sultanate

Sennar SultanateKingdom of SennarSennar
In 1812 Muhammad Ali had sent an embassy to the Funj Sultanate of Sennar asking them to clear the Mamluks out of Dongola, however neither the Funj rulers nor the Hamaj Regency had the military resources to do so.
In 1821 the last sultan, greatly reduced in power, surrendered to the Ottoman Egyptian invasion without a fight.

Nile

Nile RiverNile ValleyRiver Nile
Fewer than 10,000 men set off from Egypt, but, with some local assistance, they were able to penetrate 1,500 km up the Nile River to the frontiers of Ethiopia, giving Egypt an empire as large as Western Europe.

Ethiopia

EthiopianAbyssiniaFederal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Fewer than 10,000 men set off from Egypt, but, with some local assistance, they were able to penetrate 1,500 km up the Nile River to the frontiers of Ethiopia, giving Egypt an empire as large as Western Europe.

Western Europe

WesternWestern EuropeanWest European
Fewer than 10,000 men set off from Egypt, but, with some local assistance, they were able to penetrate 1,500 km up the Nile River to the frontiers of Ethiopia, giving Egypt an empire as large as Western Europe.

Sudan

SudaneseRepublic of SudanRepublic of the Sudan
The Egyptian conquest was the first time that an invasion of Sudan from the north had penetrated so far; it involved two risky and unprecedented desert crossings; it necessitated the use of explosives to clear a way up the Nile; and it was an early instance of a small force with modern training, firearms and artillery defeating numerically much larger forces in Africa.

Khartoum

Khartoum, SudanKhartumKhartoum-based
The invading forces also made their headquarters at Khartoum in May 1821, from which time it soon developed into Sudan's capital city.

Khedive

Khedive of EgyptkhedivalKhedivate
Muhammad Ali, the Khedive of Egypt, wanted a large and steady supply of slaves to train into a modern army so he could deploy it in other parts of his empire to further his grand territorial ambitions.

Albanians

AlbanianAlbanian peopleethnic Albanian
An army of Sudanese slaves would enable him to dispense with the mutinous Albanian and Turkish troops on whom he had been obliged to rely until then.

Turkish people

TurkishTurksTurk
An army of Sudanese slaves would enable him to dispense with the mutinous Albanian and Turkish troops on whom he had been obliged to rely until then.

Aswan

SyeneAssuanAswan, Egypt
After the conquest, Muhammad Ali constantly urged his commanders in Sudan to collect and send as many slaves as they could to the training camps at Aswan.

Mamluk

MamluksMamelukesMameluke
In addition, when Muhammad Ali had exterminated the Mamluks in Egypt in 1811, a remnant of them had fled south into Sudan and established themselves at Dongola.

Dongola

DunqulahDanaglaDiocese of Dongola
In addition, when Muhammad Ali had exterminated the Mamluks in Egypt in 1811, a remnant of them had fled south into Sudan and established themselves at Dongola.

Cairo

Cairo, EgyptCaireneAbbaseya
Although they posed no immediate threat, it was not uncommon for a defeated faction in Egyptian power struggles to flee upstream, waiting for the opportunity to descend once more on Cairo when circumstances changed in their favour.

Funj people

FunjKingdom of Funjthe ethnic group
In 1812 Muhammad Ali had sent an embassy to the Funj Sultanate of Sennar asking them to clear the Mamluks out of Dongola, however neither the Funj rulers nor the Hamaj Regency had the military resources to do so.

Hamaj Regency

Badi wad RajabHamaj regentseizing power
In 1812 Muhammad Ali had sent an embassy to the Funj Sultanate of Sennar asking them to clear the Mamluks out of Dongola, however neither the Funj rulers nor the Hamaj Regency had the military resources to do so.

Maghrebis

MaghrebiMaghrebianNorth Africans
It was composed of Turks, Albanians and other Turkish-speaking troops, as well as Maghrebis and bedouin tribal forces.

Bedouin

BedouinsBeduinBedu
It was composed of Turks, Albanians and other Turkish-speaking troops, as well as Maghrebis and bedouin tribal forces.

Abidin Bey

Second in command was a trusted Albanian officer, Abidin Bey.

Ababda people

AbabdaAbabdehAbabda tribe
Camel support was provided by Ababda tribesmen who knew the frontier regions well.

Cataracts of the Nile

First CataractSecond Cataractcataracts
The timing of the invasion was dictated by the flooding of the Nile, as the Egyptians planned to sail supply ships up over the cataracts of the Nile, and the season where the river was high enough to allow this was limited.

Kashif

Michael Jones
As the army advanced, they received the submission of the kashif of Lower Nubia, which was only nominally subject to Ottoman rule, and when they passed the second cataract, the ruler of Say likewise submitted, although he later rebelled and was killed in fighting.

Lower Nubia

Lowernorthern Nubia
As the army advanced, they received the submission of the kashif of Lower Nubia, which was only nominally subject to Ottoman rule, and when they passed the second cataract, the ruler of Say likewise submitted, although he later rebelled and was killed in fighting.

Ottoman Empire

OttomanOttomansTurks
As the army advanced, they received the submission of the kashif of Lower Nubia, which was only nominally subject to Ottoman rule, and when they passed the second cataract, the ruler of Say likewise submitted, although he later rebelled and was killed in fighting.

Saï (island)

SaïSaiSai Island
As the army advanced, they received the submission of the kashif of Lower Nubia, which was only nominally subject to Ottoman rule, and when they passed the second cataract, the ruler of Say likewise submitted, although he later rebelled and was killed in fighting.