Egyptian hieroglyphs

hieroglyphicshieroglyphichieroglyphsEgyptian hieroglyphhieroglyphEgyptian hieroglyphicsEgyptian hieroglyphichieroglyphic writingEgyptianEgyptian writing
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.wikipedia
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Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to assert Egyptian dominance.

Ancient Egyptian literature

literatureancient EgyptianAncient Egyptian texts
Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood.
Writing in ancient Egypt—both hieroglyphic and hieratic—first appeared in the late 4th millennium BC during the late phase of predynastic Egypt.

Phoenician alphabet

PhoenicianPhoenician scriptSemitic
The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Sinaitic script that later evolved into the Phoenician alphabet.
in the Syro-Hittite kingdoms, is the oldest fully matured alphabet, ultimately derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Hieratic

hieratic scriptEgyptian hieraticEgyptian scripts
The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Sinaitic script that later evolved into the Phoenician alphabet.
Hieratic developed as a cursive form of hieroglyphic script in the Naqada III period, roughly 3200–3000 BCE.

Cursive hieroglyphs

cursivecursive varianthandwritten printed hieroglyphs
Cursive hieroglyphs were used for religious literature on papyrus and wood.
Cursive hieroglyphs, or hieroglyphic book hand, are a form of Egyptian hieroglyphs commonly used for handwritten religious documents, such as the Book of the Dead.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
The Sumerian archaic cuneiform script and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate symbol systems from 3400 to 3200 BC with earliest coherent texts from about 2600 BC.

Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabetical
Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.
The Proto-Sinaitic or Proto-Canaanite script and the Ugaritic script were the first scripts with a limited number of signs, in contrast to the other widely used writing systems at the time, Cuneiform, Egyptian hieroglyphs, and Linear B.

Decipherment of ancient Egyptian scripts

decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphsdecipherment of hieroglyphsChampollion's decipherment
The decipherment of hieroglyphic writing was finally accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone.
The writing systems used in ancient Egypt were deciphered in the early nineteenth century through the work of several European scholars, especially Jean-François Champollion and Thomas Young.

Jean-François Champollion

ChampollionJean-Francois ChampollionJean François Champollion
The decipherment of hieroglyphic writing was finally accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone.
Jean-François Champollion (Champollion le jeune; 23 December 1790 – 4 March 1832) was a French scholar, philologist and orientalist, known primarily as the decipherer of Egyptian hieroglyphs and a founding figure in the field of Egyptology.

Rosetta Stone

Decree of Memphis (Ptolemy V)an ancient stone slab of the same namedecree
The decipherment of hieroglyphic writing was finally accomplished in the 1820s by Jean-François Champollion, with the help of the Rosetta Stone.
The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian using hieroglyphic and demotic scripts respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek.

Proto-writing

proto-literateUrnfield culture numerals(proto-)writing
The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC (Naqada III), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC). Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" (Naqada IIIA period, c. 33rd century BC) recovered at Abydos (modern Umm el-Qa'ab) in 1998 or the Narmer Palette (c.
The hieroglyphic scripts of the Ancient Near East (Egyptian, Sumerian proto-Cuneiform and Cretan) seamlessly emerge from such symbol systems, so that it is difficult to say at what point precisely writing emerges from proto-writing.

Hieroglyph

hieroglyphshieroglyphicAncient Egyptian Hieroglyphs
Hieroglyphs may have emerged from the preliterate artistic traditions of Egypt.
A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") was a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system.

Narmer Palette

Unification of Upper and Lower EgyptKing Narmer's paletteking smiting an enemy with a mace
Proto-hieroglyphic symbol systems develop in the second half of the 4th millennium BC, such as the clay labels of a Predynastic ruler called "Scorpion I" (Naqada IIIA period, c. 33rd century BC) recovered at Abydos (modern Umm el-Qa'ab) in 1998 or the Narmer Palette (c.
It contains some of the earliest hieroglyphic inscriptions ever found.

Seth-Peribsen

PeribsenSeth Peribsen
The first full sentence written in mature hieroglyphs so far discovered was found on a seal impression found in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen at Umm el-Qa'ab, which dates from the Second Dynasty (28th or 27th century BC).
Traditionally, the Horus name of the king was written within a serekh: the image of the facade of the royal palace beneath a falcon representing the god Horus (see Hieroglyphics).

Graffito of Esmet-Akhom

last ancient hieroglyphic textlast hieroglyphic textlast known example
Monumental use of hieroglyphs ceased after the closing of all non-Christian temples in 391 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I; the last known inscription is from Philae, known as the Graffito of Esmet-Akhom, from 394.
The Graffito of Esmet-Akhom (or Philae 436) is the last known inscription written in Egyptian hieroglyphs, dated to 394 CE.

Horapollo

HieroglyphicaHorapollonPs.-Horapollo
The Hieroglyphica of Horapollo (c.
Horapollo (from Horus Apollo; ) is the supposed author of a treatise, titled Hieroglyphica, on Egyptian hieroglyphs, extant in a Greek translation by one Philippus, dating to about the 5th century.

Athanasius Kircher

KircherMusurgia universalisKircher, Athanasius
It wasn't until Athanasius Kircher in the mid 17th century that scholars began to think the hieroglyphs might also represent sounds.
Kircher claimed to have deciphered the hieroglyphic writing of the ancient Egyptian language, but most of his assumptions and translations in this field were later found to be incorrect.

Gerzeh culture

Naqada IIGerzehGerzean
For example, symbols on Gerzean pottery from c. 4000 BC have been argued to resemble hieroglyphic writing.
Some symbols on Gerzeh pottery resemble traditional Egyptian hieroglyphs, which were contemporaneous with the proto-cuneiform script of Sumer.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
Hieroglyphs survive today in two forms: directly, through half a dozen Demotic glyphs added to the Greek alphabet when writing Coptic; and indirectly, as the inspiration for the original alphabet that was ancestral to nearly every other alphabet ever used, including the Latin alphabet.
The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Etruscan alphabet, which evolved from the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, which was itself descended from the Phoenician alphabet, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics.

Philae

Philae templePhilæTemple of Philae
Monumental use of hieroglyphs ceased after the closing of all non-Christian temples in 391 by the Roman Emperor Theodosius I; the last known inscription is from Philae, known as the Graffito of Esmet-Akhom, from 394.
When its Egyptian hieroglyphs were compared with those of the Rosetta Stone, it threw great light upon the Egyptian consonantal alphabet.

Logogram

logographiclogographlogograms
Hieroglyphs combined logographic, syllabic and alphabetic elements, with a total of some 1,000 distinct characters.
Chinese characters (including Chinese hanzi, Japanese kanji and Korean hanja) are logograms; some Egyptian hieroglyphs and some graphemes in cuneiform script are also logograms.

Egyptian triliteral signs

triliteraltriliteral Egyptian hieroglyph
Phonograms formed with one consonant are called uniliteral signs; with two consonants, biliteral signs; with three, triliteral signs.
The following is a list of Egyptian hieroglyphs with triconsonantal phonetic value.

Egypt (Roman province)

EgyptRoman EgyptRoman period
Late survivals of hieroglyphic use are found well into the Roman period, extending into the 4th century AD.
The triumph of Christianity led to a virtual abandonment of pharaonic traditions: with the disappearance of the Egyptian priests and priestesses who officiated at the temples, no-one could read the hieroglyphs of Pharaonic Egypt, and its temples were converted to churches or abandoned to the desert.

Coptic alphabet

CopticCoptic scriptCoptic alphabet in Unicode
Hieroglyphs survive today in two forms: directly, through half a dozen Demotic glyphs added to the Greek alphabet when writing Coptic; and indirectly, as the inspiration for the original alphabet that was ancestral to nearly every other alphabet ever used, including the Latin alphabet.
With the spread of Christianity in Egypt, by the late 3rd century, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was lost, as well as Demotic slightly later, making way for a writing system more closely associated with the Christian church.

Proto-Sinaitic script

Proto-Sinaitic alphabetProto-SinaiticMiddle Bronze Age alphabets
The later hieratic and demotic Egyptian scripts were derived from hieroglyphic writing, as was the Proto-Sinaitic script that later evolved into the Phoenician alphabet. Hieroglyphs survive today in two forms: directly, through half a dozen Demotic glyphs added to the Greek alphabet when writing Coptic; and indirectly, as the inspiration for the original alphabet that was ancestral to nearly every other alphabet ever used, including the Latin alphabet.
Most of the forty or so inscriptions have been found among much more numerous hieratic and hieroglyphic inscriptions, scratched on rocks near and in the turquoise mines and along the roads leading to the temple.