Egyptian language

EgyptianAncient EgyptianMiddle EgyptianOld EgyptianAncient Egyptian languagelanguageArchaic EgyptianEgyptian languagesearly EgyptianEgyptian word
The Egyptian language (Egyptian: r n km.t, ) was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.wikipedia
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List of languages by first written accounts

oldest extant Georgian inscriptionsoldest recordedancient languages
Its earliest known complete written sentence has been dated to about 2690 BC, which makes it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.

Coptic language

CopticBohairicSahidic
The spoken language had evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation.
Coptic or Coptic Egyptian (Bohairic:, ti.met.rem.ən.kʰēmi and Sahidic:, t.mənt.rəm.ən.kēme), is the latest stage of the Egyptian language, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century as an official language.

Classical language

classical languagesclassicalclassics
Its classical form is known as Middle Egyptian, the vernacular of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt which remained the literary language of Egypt until the Roman period.

Old Kingdom of Egypt

Old KingdomOldOld Kingdom period
Its attestation stretches over an extraordinarily long time, from the Old Egyptian stage (mid-4th millennium BC, Old Kingdom of Egypt).
Not only was the last king of the Early Dynastic Period related to the first two kings of the Old Kingdom, but the "capital"—the royal residence—remained at Ineb-Hedg, the Ancient Egyptian name for Memphis.

Afroasiatic languages

Afro-AsiaticAfroasiaticAfro-Asiatic languages
The Egyptian language (Egyptian: r n km.t, ) was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
The phylum has six branches: Berber, Chadic, Cushitic, Egyptian, Omotic and Semitic.

Semitic languages

SemiticSemitic languageArabian
Of the other Afroasiatic branches, linguists have variously suggested that the Egyptian language shares its greatest affinities with Berber, and Semitic.
The only earlier attested languages are Sumerian, Elamite (2800 BCE to 550 BCE) (both language isolates), Egyptian and unclassified Lullubi from the 30th century BCE.

Hieratic

hieratic scriptEgyptian hieraticEgyptian scripts
Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian were all written using both the hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts.
Hieratic is a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian, and the principal script used to write that language from its development in the 33rd century BCE until the rise of Demotic in the mid 1st millennium BCE.

Coptic alphabet

CopticCoptic scriptCoptic alphabet in Unicode
The Coptic alphabet was derived from the Greek alphabet, with adaptations for Egyptian phonology.
The repertoire of glyphs is based on the Greek alphabet augmented by letters borrowed from the Egyptian Demotic and is the first alphabetic script used for the Egyptian language.

Egyptian hieroglyphs

hieroglyphicshieroglyphichieroglyphs
Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian were all written using both the hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts.
The use of hieroglyphic writing arose from proto-literate symbol systems in the Early Bronze Age, around the 32nd century BC (Naqada III), with the first decipherable sentence written in the Egyptian language dating to the Second Dynasty (28th century BC).

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
The Egyptian language (Egyptian: r n km.t, ) was spoken in ancient Egypt and was a branch of the Afro-Asiatic languages.
While the native population certainly continued to speak their language, the ability to read hieroglyphic writing slowly disappeared as the role of the Egyptian temple priests and priestesses diminished.

Copts

CoptCopticCoptic Christians
The spoken language had evolved into Demotic by the time of Classical Antiquity, and finally into Coptic by the time of Christianisation.
The Greek term for Egypt, Aigýptos, itself derives from the Egyptian language, but dates to a much earlier period, being attested already in Mycenaean Greek as a 3 -ku-pi-ti-jo (lit.

Pyramid Texts

Pyramid Textfuneral texts from the pyramidsPyramid
The Pyramid Texts are the largest body of literature written in this phase of the language.
Written in Old Egyptian, the pyramid texts were carved onto the subterranean walls and sarcophagi of pyramids at Saqqara from the end of the Fifth Dynasty, and throughout the Sixth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, and into the Eighth Dynasty of the First Intermediate Period.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

Ptolemaic EgyptPtolemaicEgypt
It was first developed in the Ptolemaic period, and gradually replaced the Demotic script in about the 4th to 5th centuries of the Christian era.
The era of Ptolemaic reign in Egypt is one of the best-documented time periods of the Hellenistic period; a wealth of papyri written in Koine Greek and Egyptian have been discovered in Egypt.

N

See below
One of the most common hieroglyphs, snake, was used in Egyptian writing to stand for a sound like the English, because the Egyptian word for "snake" was djet.

Egyptology

EgyptologistEgyptologistsEgyptological
As the classical variant of Egyptian, Middle Egyptian is the best-documented variety of the language, and has attracted the most attention by far from Egyptology.
علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.

Ancient Egyptian literature

literatureancient EgyptianAncient Egyptian texts
Late Egyptian, appearing around 1350 BC, is represented by a large body of religious and secular literature, comprising such examples as the Story of Wenamun, the love poems of the Chester–Beatty I papyrus, and the Instruction of Any.
Ancient Egyptian literature was written in the Egyptian language from ancient Egypt's pharaonic period until the end of Roman domination.

Pr (hieroglyph)

PerPrhouse
While its original pronunciation is not known with certainty, modern Egyptology assigns it the value of per, but purely on the basis of a convention specific to the discipline.

Late Egyptian language

Late Egyptiannative Egyptian languageEgyptian, Late
Late Egyptian, appearing around 1350 BC, is represented by a large body of religious and secular literature, comprising such examples as the Story of Wenamun, the love poems of the Chester–Beatty I papyrus, and the Instruction of Any. The Middle Egyptian stage is taken to have ended around the 14th century BC, giving rise to Late Egyptian.
Late Egyptian is the stage of the Egyptian language that was written by the time of the New Kingdom of Egypt around 1350 BC – the Amarna Period.

Story of Wenamun

Report of WenamunBederBeder (ancient ruler)
Late Egyptian, appearing around 1350 BC, is represented by a large body of religious and secular literature, comprising such examples as the Story of Wenamun, the love poems of the Chester–Beatty I papyrus, and the Instruction of Any.
The Story of Wenamun (alternately known as the Report of Wenamun, The Misadventures of Wenamun, Voyage of Unamūn, or [informally] as just Wenamun) is a literary text written in hieratic in the Late Egyptian language.

Decipherment of ancient Egyptian scripts

decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphsdecipherment of hieroglyphsChampollion's decipherment
Middle Egyptian first became available to modern scholarship with the decipherment of hieroglyphs in the early 19th century.
It was hoped that the Egyptian text could be deciphered through its Greek translation, especially in combination with the evidence from Coptic, the last stage of the Egyptian language.

Seth-Peribsen

PeribsenSeth Peribsen
Discovered in the tomb of Seth-Peribsen (dated c.
Other contemporary inscriptions indicate that Egyptian grammar was perfected during his time: In particular, the earliest seal impressions with complete sentences date back to Peribsen's reign.

Adolf Erman

Erman, AdolfJohann Peter Adolf ErmanA. Erman
The first grammar of Middle Egyptian was published by Adolf Erman in 1894, surpassed in 1927 by Alan Gardiner's work.
Erman and his school at Berlin had the difficult task of recovering the grammar of the Egyptian language and spent thirty years of special study on it.

Coptic Catholic Church

Coptic CatholicCopticCoptic Catholicism
Coptic survives as the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria and the Coptic Catholic Church.
Uniquely among Eastern Catholic Churches, it uses the Coptic language (derived from Ancient Egyptian, hence the name) in its liturgy, whereas the Ethiopian Catholic Church and Eritrean Catholic Church use the Alexandrian Rite in the Ge'ez language.

Proto-Afroasiatic language

Proto-AfroasiaticProto-Afro-AsiaticProto-Afro-Asiatic language
In Egyptian, the Proto-Afroasiatic voiced consonants developed into pharyngeal : ꜥr.t 'portal', Semitic dalt 'door'.

Papyrus

papyripapyriformchartatabidum
In antiquity, most texts were written on perishable papyrus in hieratic and (later) demotic, which are now lost.
In the Egyptian language, papyrus was called wadj (w3ḏ), tjufy (ṯwfy), or djet (ḏt).