The leaders of the Revolution, Mohammed Naguib (left) and Gamal Abdel Nasser (right) in a Cadillac
Nasser in 1931
Members of the Free Officers gathered after the coup d'état. From left to right: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein, Gamal Abdel Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Muhammad Naguib, Youssef Seddik and Ahmed Shawki
Nasser's name circled in Al-Gihad
Members of the Free Officers welcomed by crowds in Cairo in January 1953. Standing in the automobile, from left to right: Youssef Seddik, Salah Salem, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Abdel Latif Boghdadi
Portrait of Nasser at law school in 1937
Nasser (center) with Ahmed Mazhar (left) in army, 1940
Nasser (first from left) with his unit in the Faluja pocket, displaying weapons captured from the Israeli Army during the 1948 war.
The Free Officers after the coup, 1953. Counterclockwise: Zakaria Mohieddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamel el-Din Hussein (standing), Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Naguib, Youssef Seddik, and Ahmad Shawki.
Leaders of Egypt following the ouster of King Farouk, November 1952. Seated, left to right: Sulayman Hafez, Mohamed Naguib and Nasser
Nasser (right) and Mohamed Naguib (left) during celebrations marking the second anniversary of the 1952 revolution, July 1954
Nasser and Naguib saluting at the opening of the Suez Canal
Liberation organization in Alexandria invitation to Nasser speech 26 October 1954
Nasser greeted by crowds in Alexandria one day after his announcement of the British withdrawal and the assassination attempt against him, 27 October 1954.
Nasser and Imam Ahmad of North Yemen facing the camera, Prince Faisal of Saudi Arabia in white robes in the background, Amin al-Husayni of the All-Palestine Government in the foreground at the Bandung Conference, April 1955
Nasser submitting his vote for the referendum of the proposed constitution, 23 June 1956
Nasser raising the Egyptian flag over the Suez Canal city of Port Said to celebrate the final British military withdrawal from the country, June 1956
Nasser giving a speech at the opening of the Suez Canal
The signing of the regional defense pact between Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Jordan, January 1957. At the forefront, from left right: Prime Minister Sulayman al-Nabulsi of Jordan, King Hussein of Jordan, King Saud of Saudi Arabia, Nasser, Prime Minister Sabri al-Asali of Syria
Nasser seated alongside Crown Prince Muhammad al-Badr of North Yemen (center) and Shukri al-Quwatli (right), February 1958. North Yemen joined the UAR to form the United Arab States, a loose confederation.
Nasser (right) and Lebanese president Fuad Chehab (to Nasser's right) at the Syrian–Lebanese border during talks to end the crisis in Lebanon. Akram al-Hawrani stands third to Nasser's left, and Abdel Hamid Sarraj stands to Chehab's right, March 1959.
Nasser waving to crowds in Damascus, Syria, October 1960
Nasser (center) receiving Algerian president Ahmed Ben Bella (right) and Iraqi president Abdel Salam Aref (left) for the Arab League summit in Alexandria, September 1964. Ben Bella and Aref were close allies of Nasser.
Nasser before Yemeni crowds on his arrival to Sana'a, April 1964. In front of Nasser and giving a salute is Yemeni President Abdullah al-Sallal
Government officials attending Friday prayers at al-Azhar Mosque, 1959. From left to right; Interior Minister Zakaria Mohieddin, Nasser, Social Affairs Minister Hussein el-Shafei and National Union Secretary Anwar Sadat
Nasser being sworn in for a second term as Egypt's president, 25 March 1965
Nasser (center), King Hussein of Jordan (left) and Egyptian Army Chief of Staff Abdel Hakim Amer (right) at the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces headquarters in Cairo before signing a mutual defense pact, 30 May 1967
Egyptian demonstrators protesting Nasser's resignation, 1967
Nasser observing the Suez front with Egyptian officers during the 1968 War of Attrition. General Commander Mohamed Fawzi is directly behind Nasser, and to their left is Chief of Staff Abdel Moneim Riad.
Nasser brokering a ceasefire between Yasser Arafat of the PLO (left) and King Hussein of Jordan (right) at the emergency Arab League summit in Cairo on 27 September 1970, one day before Nasser's death
Nasser's funeral procession attended by five million mourners in Cairo, 1 October 1970
Gamal Abdel Nasser Mosque in Cairo, the site of his burial
Nasser presenting prominent and blind writer Taha Hussein (standing in front of Nasser) with a national honors prize for literature, 1959
Nasser speaking to a homeless Egyptian man and offering him a job, after the man was found sleeping below the stage where Nasser was seated, 1959
Nasser waving to crowds in Mansoura, 1960
Anwar Sadat (left) and Nasser in the National Assembly, 1964. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president in 1970 and significantly departed from Nasser's policies throughout his rule.
Jaafar Nimeiry of Sudan (left), Nasser, and Muammar Gaddafi of Libya (right) at the Tripoli Airport, 1969. Nimeiry and Gaddafi were influenced by Nasser's pan-Arabist ideas and the latter sought to succeed him as "leader of the Arabs".
Nasser and his family in Manshiyat al-Bakri, 1963. From left to right, his daughter Mona, his wife Tahia Kazem, daughter Hoda, son Abdel Hakim, son Khaled, son Abdel Hamid, and Nasser.

The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the 23 July Revolution, was a period of profound political, economic, and societal change in Egypt that began on 23 July 1952 with the toppling of King Farouk in a coup d'etat by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohamed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.

- Egyptian revolution of 1952

Nasser led the 1952 overthrow of the monarchy and introduced far-reaching land reforms the following year.

- Gamal Abdel Nasser

14 related topics

Alpha

The Flag of the Egyptian Revolution and Flag of Egypt (1953–1958)

Free Officers Movement (Egypt)

The Flag of the Egyptian Revolution and Flag of Egypt (1953–1958)
The Free Officers after toppling the monarchy, 1953. Counterclockwise: Zakaria Mohyeddin, Abdel Latif Boghdadi, Kamal Eddine Hessien (standing), Nasser (seated), Abdel Hakim Amer, Mohamed Naguib, Youssef Sedeek and Ahmad Shawki
Abdel Latif Boghdadi (left) Gamal Abdel Nasser (center left) Salah Salem (center right) Abdel Hakim Amer (right).

The Free Officers (حركة الضباط الأحرار) were a group of revolutionary Egyptian nationalist officers in the Egyptian Armed Forces and Sudanese Armed Forces that instigated the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

Initially started as a small rebellion military cell under Abdel Moneim Abdel Raouf, which included Gamal Abdel Nasser, Hussein Hamouda, Khaled Mohieddin, Kamal el-Din Hussein, Salah Nasr, Abdel Hakim Amer, and Saad Tawfik, it operated as a clandestine movement of junior officers during the Palestine War of 1948-1949.

Farouk I in military uniform (1946)

Farouk of Egypt

The tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.

The tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.

Farouk I in military uniform (1946)
Portrait by Philip de László, 1929
King Farouk Seven-Piece Empire Bedroom Suite crafted by the Parisian ébéniste, Antoine Krieger
Farouk I with his wife Narriman and their son Fuad II in exile in Capri, Italy (1953)
King Farouk I Tomb in Refaii mosque, Cairo, Egypt
Farouk I with his wife Queen Farida and their first-born daughter Farial (c. 1939)

He was overthrown in the 1952 Coup d'etat, and forced to abdicate in favour of his infant son, Ahmed Fuad, who succeeded him as Fuad II.

The appointment of Chirine as War Minister spurred the Free Officers into action, and on 22 July their leaders, General Muhammad Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, decided on a coup the next day.

Mohamed Naguib

Naguib during the 1948 war
Naguib saluting at the opening of the Suez Canal with Gamal Abdel Nasser
Naguib (left) and Nasser (right) during celebrations for the second anniversary of the revolution, July 1954
Naguib at his office, 1953
Naguib with Chinese Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army General Ma Bufang
Last declaration by Mohamed Naguib before his arrest, 1954
Naguib, in front of his portrait, in the last days of his life.

Mohamed Bey Naguib Youssef Qutb El-Qashlan (الرئيس اللواء محمد بك نجيب يوسف قطب القشلان, ; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984), also known as Mohamed Naguib, was an Egyptian revolutionary, and, along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, one of the two principal leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 that toppled the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Egypt, and the independence of Sudan.

Cairo

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

Capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

Remains of a circular Roman tower at the Babylon Fortress (late 3rd century) in Old Cairo
Excavated ruins of Fustat (2004 photo)
The Mosque of Ibn Tulun, built by Ahmad Ibn Tulun in 876–879 AD
A plan of Cairo before 1200 AD, as reconstructed by Stanley Lane-Poole (1906), showing the location of Fatimid structures, Saladin's Citadel, and earlier sites (Fustat not shown)
The Cairo Citadel, seen above in the late 19th century, was begun by Saladin in 1176
Mausoleum-Madrasa-Hospital complex of Sultan Qalawun, built in 1284–1285 in the center of Cairo, over the remains of a Fatimid palace
Funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay, built in 1470–1474 in the Northern Cemetery (seen in lithograph from 1848)
Map of Cairo in 1809, from the Description de l'Égypte.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848–1933). On the Way between Old and New Cairo, Citadel Mosque of Mohammed Ali, and Tombs of the Mamelukes, 1872. Oil on canvas. Brooklyn Museum
Qasr El Nil Bridge
Aerial view 1904 from a balloon where the Egyptian Museum appears to the right side.
A panoramic view of Cairo, 1950s
Everyday life in Cairo, 1950s
A protester holding an Egyptian flag during the protests that started on 25 January 2011.
The river Nile flows through Cairo, here contrasting ancient customs of daily life with the modern city of today.
Aerial view looking south, with the Zamalek and Gezira districts on Gezira Island, surrounded by the Nile
Cairo seen from Spot Satellite
Cairo weather observations by French savants
View of the 6th October Bridge and the Cairo skyline.
Cairo University is the largest university in Egypt, and is located in Giza.
Library building at the new campus of the American University of Cairo in New Cairo
The interior of Ramses Station
The Autostrade in Nasr City
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
Cairo Opera House, at the National Cultural Center, Zamalek district.
Khedivial Opera House, 1869.
Solomon Schechter studying documents from the Cairo Geniza, c. 1895.
Statue of Talaat Pasha Harb, the father of the modern Egyptian economy, in Downtown Cairo
The NBE towers as viewed from the Nile
View of Tahrir Square (in 2008)
Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum, located at Tahrir Square
Cairo Tower at night
The Hanging Church in Old Cairo
Al-Muizz Street in Islamic Cairo
Al-Azhar Mosque, view of Fatimid-era courtyard and Mamluk minarets
Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hassan and the al-Rifa'i Mosque, seen from the Citadel
The Citadel of Cairo, with the Mosque of Muhammad Ali
A medieval gateway in Khan al-Khalili
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo
View of the Nile and the Cairo skyline.
6th October Bridge in Cairo
Cairo International Stadium with 75,100 seats
View of Tahrir Square (in 2020)
Smog in Cairo
Traffic in Cairo

The British departed Cairo following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but the city's rapid growth showed no signs of abating.

Seeking to accommodate the increasing population, President Gamal Abdel Nasser redeveloped Tahrir Square and the Nile Corniche, and improved the city's network of bridges and highways.

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the Sudans region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, corresponding mostly to the territory of present-day Sudan and South Sudan.

Condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the Sudans region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, corresponding mostly to the territory of present-day Sudan and South Sudan.

Green: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
Light green: Sarra Triangle ceded to Italian Libya in 1934
Dark grey: Egypt and the United Kingdom
Flag of the Governor-General
Plaque in the Cloisters of Westminster Abbey, London, to commemorate the British in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1898–1955. The abbreviated Latin motto is from Psalm 127:"Except the Lord buildeth the house, they labour in vain that build it."
1947 Sudanese passport, being a consular issue from Cairo
Provisional flag of Sudan used during the Afro-Asian Conference (April 1955)
Provinces of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan in 1948. Provinces of the future South Sudan are coloured in red.

Following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, Egypt pushed for an end to the condominium, and the independence of Sudan.

The new revolutionary government under Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser made Sudanese independence a priority.

Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council

The Revolutionary Command Council (RCC; مجلس قيادة الثورة Majlis Qiyāda ath-Thawra) was the body established to supervise the Republic of Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan after the Revolution of 1952.

In July 1952, a group of disaffected army officers (the "Free Officers") led by General Muhammad Naguib and Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrew King Farouk, whom the military blamed for Egypt's poor performance in the 1948 war with Israel.

Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011

2011 Egyptian revolution

The 2011 Egyptian revolution, also known as the 25 January revolution (ثورة ٢٥ يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), began on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.

The 2011 Egyptian revolution, also known as the 25 January revolution (ثورة ٢٥ يناير; Thawrat khamsa wa-ʿišrūn yanāyir), began on 25 January 2011 and spread across Egypt.

Demonstrators in Cairo's Tahrir Square on 8 February 2011
Hosni Mubarak in 2009
Gamal Mubarak in 2006
Egyptian population pyramid in 2005; many people age 30 and younger, despite education, have difficulty finding work.
A poor neighbourhood in Cairo
Protester holds Egyptian flag during protests which began on 25 January 2011.
The "Day of Revolt", 25 January
Protest in Tahrir Square, 4 February
Celebrating the announcement of Hosni Mubarak's resignation in Tahrir Square, 11 February
Protesters in Alexandria
Tahrir Square memorial made by demonstrators in honour of those who died during the protests, regarded as shuhada' شهداء (martyrs). The photo captions attribute most of the deaths to police violence.
Graffiti at Tahrir square, commemorating martyrs of the revolution
Sign with protester demands
Shredded documents at the State Security Investigations Service
Voter line in Mokattam, Cairo, during the 19 March 2011 constitutional referendum extending from the built-up area of Mokattam into the desert. The referendum had an unprecedented voter turnout of over 18 million.
Female protester wearing a niqāb
One of two army vehicles burnt during the army attacks on 9 April 2011
An Egyptian blocking a SWAT van in response to the protests
Man holding a poster reading "Facebook, #jan25, The Egyptian Social Network" during the 2011 protests
People take to the streets on 7 April 2008, in Mahalla, Egypt. In the days following the planned strike on 6 April that was shut down by government force, a series of uprisings and military reprisals turned the city of Mahalla, about two hours north of Cairo, into a conflict zone. Rising food prices fueled the unrest. The 6 April Movement was formed in the wake of the uprisings which fed revolutionary sentiment and helped lead to the 2011 revolution.

Egypt's economy was highly centralised during the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, becoming more market-driven under Anwar Sadat and Mubarak.

Thousands of protesters attempted to march to the defense ministry after a speech by Mohammed Tantawi commemorating the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, but are met with counter-insurgents with sticks, stones and Molotov cocktails.

Muslim brotherhood logo with the Arabic word for "prepare" present under two crossed swords

Muslim Brotherhood

Transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassan al-Banna in 1928.

Muslim brotherhood logo with the Arabic word for "prepare" present under two crossed swords
Muslim Brotherhood fighters in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Then-U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry meeting with then-Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi, May 2013
A group of pro-Brotherhood protesters holding the Rabia sign and making the associated gesture during a pro-Brotherhood protest held in October 2013.
Mohammed Badie, the current leader
Erdoğan performing the Rabaa gesture (which is used by Muslim Brotherhood supporters in Egypt protesting against the post-Brotherhood authorities)
Countries that ban Muslim Brotherhood,

In 1952 Egypt's monarchy was overthrown by a group of nationalist military officers (Free Officers Movement) who had formed a cell within the Brotherhood during the first war against Israel in 1948.

However, after the revolution Gamal Abdel Nasser, the leader of the 'free officers' cell, after deposing the first President of Egypt, Muhammad Neguib, in a coup, quickly moved against the Brotherhood, blaming them for an attempt on his life.

Anwar Sadat in 1980

Anwar Sadat

Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the third president of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.

Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the third president of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.

Anwar Sadat in 1980
Sadat graduating from the military college in 1938
Sadat in 1953
Sadat shaking hands with Salah Zulfikar. Cairo, 1976
Top Egyptian leaders in Alexandria, 1968. From left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat, Ali Sabri and Hussein el-Shafei
Sadat (left) shaking hands with Israeli Defense Minister Ezer Weizman, 1978
President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin acknowledge applause during joint session of Congress in Washington, D.C., during which President Jimmy Carter announced the results of the Camp David Accords, 18 September 1978
President Jimmy Carter shaking hands with Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty on the grounds of the White House, 1979
President Sadat with U.S. Senator Joe Biden (left), and U.S. Senator Frank Church (center), at Camp David, 1979.
Queen Farah Diba, President Anwar Sadat and Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Tehran in 1975
Yuri Gagarin with Sadat and Gamal Abdel Nasser in Cairo, 1962

Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as president in 1970.

Farmers protesting for land reform in Indonesia, 2004

Land reform in Egypt

Farmers protesting for land reform in Indonesia, 2004

The post-revolution Egyptian Land Reform was an effort to change land ownership practices in Egypt following the 1952 Revolution launched by Gamal Abdel Nasser and the Free Officers Movement.