Egyptians

EgyptianEgyptian peopleEgyptEgyptian nationalEgyptian-bornLiberal agenative EgyptianArab EgyptiansEgyptian ArabsEgyptian identity
Egyptians (مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are the people inhabiting the country of Egypt.wikipedia
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Art of ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian artEgyptian artEgyptian
During this period, Egyptian culture underwent significant development in terms of religion, arts, language and customs.
Continued expansion of the desert forced the early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile and adopt a more sedentary lifestyle during the Neolithic.

Coptic language

CopticBohairicSahidic
A considerable percentage of Egyptians are Coptic Christians who belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church, whose liturgical language, Coptic, is the most recent stage of the ancient Egyptian language and is still used in prayers along with Arabic.
However, it is clear that by the Late Period of ancient Egypt, demotic scribes regularly employed a more phonetic orthography, a testament to the increasing cultural contact between Egyptians and Greeks even before Alexander the Great's conquest of Egypt.

Flooding of the Nile

Nile floodannual floodingNile floods
The king in his role as Son of Ra was entrusted to maintain Ma'at, the principle of truth, justice and order, and to enhance the country's agricultural economy by ensuring regular Nile floods.
It is celebrated by Egyptians as an annual holiday for two weeks starting August 15, known as Wafaa El-Nil.

Egypt (Roman province)

EgyptRoman EgyptRoman period
* Copts, also a derivative of the Greek word Αἰγύπτιος, Aiguptios ("Egypt, Egyptian"), that appeared under Muslim rule when it overtook Roman rule in Egypt.
Under Antoninus Pius oppressive taxation led to a revolt in 139, of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

Amarna Period

Foreign relations of Egypt during the Amarna periodAmarnaAmarna interlude
It remained a super-regional power throughout the Amarna Period as well as during the 19th and 20th dynasties (the Ramesside Period), lasting into the Early Iron Age.
Although modern students of Egyptology consider the monotheism of Akhenaten the most important event of this period, the later Egyptians considered the so-called Amarna period an unfortunate aberration.

Ptolemaic Kingdom

Ptolemaic EgyptPtolemaicEgypt
The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt from 305 BC to 30 BC and introduced Hellenic culture to Egyptians.
The early Ptolemies did not disturb the religion or the customs of the Egyptians.

Alexandria

Alexandria, EgyptAlexandrianAl-Iskandariyya
The earliest converts were Jews residing in Alexandria, a city which had by then become a center of culture and learning in the entire Mediterranean oikoumene.
The early Ptolemies kept it in order and fostered the development of its museum into the leading Hellenistic center of learning (Library of Alexandria), but were careful to maintain the distinction of its population's three largest ethnicities: Greek, Jewish, and Egyptian.

Assyria

Assyrian EmpireAssyriansAssyrian
Egyptian beliefs remained unchallenged when Egypt fell to the Hyksos, Assyrians, Libyans, Persians and Greeks—their rulers assumed the role of the Egyptian Pharaoh and were often depicted praying to Egyptian gods.
Ashur-nadin-ahhe I (1450–1431 BC) was courted by the Egyptians, who were rivals of Mitanni, and attempting to gain a foothold in the Near East.

Jews

JewishJewJewish people
The art of mummy portraiture flourished, but Egypt became further stratified with Romans at the apex of the social pyramid, Greeks and Jews occupied the middle stratum, while Egyptians, who constituted the vast majority, were at the bottom.
says that the son in a marriage between a Hebrew woman and an Egyptian man is "of the community of Israel."

Egypt

EgyptianEGYArab Republic of Egypt
Egyptians (مِصريّون; Ni/rem/en/kīmi) are the people inhabiting the country of Egypt.
Ethnic Egyptians are by far the largest ethnic group in the country, constituting 91% of the total population.

Hellenistic period

HellenisticHellenistic eraHellenistic Age
The Ptolemaic dynasty ruled Egypt from 305 BC to 30 BC and introduced Hellenic culture to Egyptians.
The Egyptians begrudgingly accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt, though the kingdom went through several native revolts.

Old Kingdom of Egypt

Old KingdomOldOld Kingdom period
It was especially pronounced in the Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom and continued until the Roman conquest.
Egyptians in this era worshiped their Pharaoh as a god, believing that he ensured the annual flooding of the Nile that was necessary for their crops.

Al-Suyuti

SuyutiJalaluddin Al-Suyutial-Suyūṭī
He also co-founded with his contemporary Ali Mubarak, the architect of the modern Egyptian school system, a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars like Suyuti and Maqrizi, who studied ancient Egyptian history, language and antiquities.
undefined 1445–1505 CE); aka Jalaluddin; an Egyptian of mixed Persian and Circassian origin.

Ali Pasha Mubarak

Ali MubarakAli Mubarak Pasha
He also co-founded with his contemporary Ali Mubarak, the architect of the modern Egyptian school system, a native Egyptology school that looked for inspiration to medieval Egyptian scholars like Suyuti and Maqrizi, who studied ancient Egyptian history, language and antiquities.
Ali Pasha Mubarak (على مبارك, born 1823 or 1824- died on 14 November 1893) was an Egyptian public works and education minister during the second half of the nineteenth century.

Rifa'a al-Tahtawi

Rifa'a el-TahtawiRifa'a al-Tahtawi (1801–1873)Rifa'a Rafi' al-Tahtawi
The first Egyptian renaissance intellectual was Rifa'a el-Tahtawi.
Rifa'a al-Tahtawi (also spelt Tahtawy; رفاعة رافع الطهطاوي, ; 1801–1873) was an Egyptian writer, teacher, translator, Egyptologist and renaissance intellectual.

Muhammad Abduh

Muhammad 'AbduhMuhammed AbduhMohammad Abduh
Sheikh Muhammad Abduh, the son of a Delta farmer who was briefly exiled for his participation in the Urabi revolt and a future Azhar Mufti, was its most notable advocate. Among those who set the intellectual tone of a newly independent Egypt, in addition to Muhammad Abduh and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, were Qasim Amin, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Taha Hussein, Abbas el-'Akkad, Tawfiq el-Hakeem, and Salama Moussa.
Muḥammad 'Abduh (1849 – 11 July 1905) (also spelled Mohammed Abduh, محمد عبده) was an Egyptian Islamic jurist, religious scholar and liberal reformer, regarded as one of the key founding figures of Islamic Modernism, sometimes called Neo-Mu’tazilism after the medieval Islamic school of theology based on rationalism, Muʿtazila.

Nubia

NubianChristian Nubiaancient Nubians
Another important continuity during this period is the Egyptian attitude toward foreigners—those they considered not fortunate enough to be part of the community of rmṯ or "the people" (i.e., Egyptians.) This attitude was facilitated by the Egyptians' more frequent contact with other peoples during the New Kingdom, when Egypt expanded to an empire that also encompassed Nubia through Jebel Barkal and parts of the Levant.
From Aswan, right above the First Cataract, the southern limit of Egyptian control at the time, Egyptians imported gold, incense, ebony, copper, ivory, and exotic animals from tropical Africa through Nubia.

Fayum mummy portraits

Faiyum mummy portraitsFayum mummy portraitFayum portrait
The art of mummy portraiture flourished, but Egypt became further stratified with Romans at the apex of the social pyramid, Greeks and Jews occupied the middle stratum, while Egyptians, who constituted the vast majority, were at the bottom.
Under Greco-Roman rule, Egypt hosted several Greek settlements, mostly concentrated in Alexandria, but also in a few other cities, where Greek settlers lived alongside some seven to ten million native Egyptians.

Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed

Ahmad Lutfi Al SayyidAhmad Lutfi Al-SayyidAhmed Lutfi el-Sayed (1872–1963)
Among these were Mustafa Kamil and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, the architects of modern Egyptian nationalism. Among those who set the intellectual tone of a newly independent Egypt, in addition to Muhammad Abduh and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, were Qasim Amin, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Taha Hussein, Abbas el-'Akkad, Tawfiq el-Hakeem, and Salama Moussa.
Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed or Aḥmad Luṭfī Sayyid Pasha (15 January 1872 – 5 March 1963) was a prominent Egyptian nationalist, intellectual, anti-colonial activist and the first director of Cairo University.

Saad Zaghloul

Saad ZaghlulSaad Zaghloul PashaSaad Zaghlul Pasha
Prominent among these was Saad Zaghlul who led the new movement through the Wafd Party.
Saad Zaghloul (also: Saad Zaghlûl, Sa'd Zaghloul Pasha ibn Ibrahim) (July 1859 – 23 August 1927) was an Egyptian revolutionary and statesman.

Talaat Harb

Talaat Pasha HarbTala'at Harb
In 1920, Banque Misr (Bank of Egypt) was founded by Talaat Pasha Harb as "an Egyptian bank for Egyptians only", which restricted shareholding to native Egyptians and helped finance various new Egyptian-owned businesses.
Talaat Harb Pacha (طلعت حرب باشا; 25 November 1867 - 13 August 1941) was a leading Egyptian economist and founder of Banque Misr, and its group of companies, in May 1920.

Taha Hussein

Taha HusaynHussein, TahaTaha
Among those who set the intellectual tone of a newly independent Egypt, in addition to Muhammad Abduh and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, were Qasim Amin, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Taha Hussein, Abbas el-'Akkad, Tawfiq el-Hakeem, and Salama Moussa.
Taha Hussein (, طه حسين; November 15, 1889 – October 28, 1973) was one of the most influential 20th-century Egyptian writers and intellectuals, and a figurehead for the Egyptian Renaissance and the modernist movement in the Middle East and North Africa.

Tawfiq al-Hakim

Tawfiq el-HakimTawfiq el-HakeemHakim, Tawfiq al-
Among those who set the intellectual tone of a newly independent Egypt, in addition to Muhammad Abduh and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, were Qasim Amin, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Taha Hussein, Abbas el-'Akkad, Tawfiq el-Hakeem, and Salama Moussa.
Tawfiq al-Hakim or Tawfik el-Hakim (توفيق الحكيم, ; October 9, 1898 – July 26, 1987) was a prominent Egyptian writer and visionary.

Abbas Mahmoud al-Aqqad

Abbas el-AkkadAbbas Al AkkadAbbās al-Aqqād
Among those who set the intellectual tone of a newly independent Egypt, in addition to Muhammad Abduh and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, were Qasim Amin, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Taha Hussein, Abbas el-'Akkad, Tawfiq el-Hakeem, and Salama Moussa.
Abbas Mahmoud al-Aqqad (عباس محمود العقاد, ; 28 June 1889 – 12 March 1964) was an Egyptian journalist, poet and literary critic, and member of the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo.

Mohammed Hussein Heikal

Muhammad Husayn HaykalHaykalHusayn Haykal
Among those who set the intellectual tone of a newly independent Egypt, in addition to Muhammad Abduh and Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, were Qasim Amin, Muhammad Husayn Haykal, Taha Hussein, Abbas el-'Akkad, Tawfiq el-Hakeem, and Salama Moussa.
Mohammed Hussein Heikal (محمد حسين هيكل, ; August 20, 1888 – December 8, 1956) was an Egyptian writer, journalist, politician and Minister of Education in Egypt.