Eiffel Tower

the Eiffel TowerTour Eiffela towerhis Parisian towerIron LadyJules VerneLa Tour Eiffelmore permanent displaymost iconic building in Parisoriginal
The Eiffel Tower (Tour Eiffel ) is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.wikipedia
1,154 Related Articles

Gustave Eiffel

EiffelAlexandre Gustave Eiffel(Alexandre) Gustave Eiffel
It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. The design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel.
He is best known for the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, and his contribution to building the Statue of Liberty in New York.

List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region

tallest buildings in the metropolitan areatallest buildings in the Paris regiontallest in Paris
The tower is 324 m tall, about the same height as an 81- building, and the tallest structure in Paris.
The tallest structure in the City of Paris and the Île de France remains the Eiffel Tower in the 7th arrondissement, 300 meters high, completed in 1889 as the gateway to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition.

Washington Monument

Monumentthe one in Washington, D.C.Washington
During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the [[List of tallest freestanding structures in the world#Timeline of world's tallest freestanding structures|tallest man-made structure]] in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930.
It was the tallest structure in the world from 1884 to 1889, when it was overtaken by the Eiffel Tower in Paris.

Émile Nouguier

The design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel.
He is famous for co-designing the Eiffel Tower, built 1887–1889 for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, France, the Garabit viaduct, the highest in the world at the time, near Ruynes-en-Margeride, Cantal, France, and the Faidherbe Bridge over the Sénégal River in Senegal.

Exposition Universelle (1889)

Exposition UniverselleParis ExpositionParis Exposition of 1889
Constructed from 1887–1889 as the entrance to the 1889 World's Fair, it was initially criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution.
The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the entrance arch to the Fair.

Stephen Sauvestre

Eiffel initially showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, and the two engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of company's architectural department, to contribute to the design.
He is notable for being one of the architects contributing to the design of the world-famous Eiffel Tower, built for the 1889 Universal Exposition in Paris, France.

Chrysler Building

Chrysler405 Lexington AvenueChrysler Building, Ground Floor Interior
During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the [[List of tallest freestanding structures in the world#Timeline of world's tallest freestanding structures|tallest man-made structure]] in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930.
In his autobiography, Chrysler says he suggested that his building be taller than the Eiffel Tower.

List of tallest structures in France

252 metres highsecond tallest free-standing structure in Francetallest structures in France
Due to the addition of a broadcasting aerial at the top of the tower in 1957, it is now taller than the Chrysler Building by 17 ft. Excluding transmitters, the Eiffel Tower is the second tallest free-standing structure in France after the Millau Viaduct.

Observation deck

viewing platformobservation platformdeck
The top level's upper platform is 276 m above the ground – the highest observation deck accessible to the public in the European Union.

France

🇫🇷FrenchFRA
The Eiffel Tower (Tour Eiffel ) is a wrought-iron lattice tower on the Champ de Mars in Paris, France.
The most popular tourist sites include (annual visitors): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Château de Versailles (2.8 million), Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (2 million), Pont du Gard (1.5 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), Sainte-Chapelle (683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), Carcassonne (362,000).

Otis Elevator Company

OtisOtis elevatorOtis elevators
The European branch of Otis Brothers & Company submitted a proposal but this was rejected: the fair's charter ruled out the use of any foreign material in the construction of the tower.
Otis has installed elevators in some of the world's most famous structures, including the Eiffel Tower, Empire State Building, the original World Trade Center, The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror, Petronas Twin Towers, Burj Khalifa, CN Tower, the Winchester Mystery House, the Hotel del Coronado, the Demarest Building (first electric elevator), the Singing Tower at Bok Tower Gardens, and the Skylon Tower.

Levallois-Perret

LevalloisLevallois-Perret, FranceLevallois-Perret, Paris
The finished components, some already riveted together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn carts from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and were first bolted together, with the bolts being replaced with rivets as construction progressed.
The Eiffel company had its factory in the city and so the structure of the Statue of Liberty and the Eiffel Tower were built there.

List of tallest freestanding structures

tallest freestanding structure11th tallest in the world11th-tallest freestanding structure
During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the Washington Monument to become the [[List of tallest freestanding structures in the world#Timeline of world's tallest freestanding structures|tallest man-made structure]] in the world, a title it held for 41 years until the Chrysler Building in New York City was finished in 1930.

Minute and second of arc

masarcsecondarc second
The task of drawing the components was complicated by the complex angles involved in the design and the degree of precision required: the position of rivet holes was specified to within 0.1 mm and angles worked out to one second of arc.
A milliarcsecond is about the size of a dime atop the Eiffel Tower as seen from New York City.

Alberto Santos-Dumont

Alberto Santos DumontSantos-DumontSantos Dumont
On 19 October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.6 airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe for the first person to make a flight from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour.
In his early career he designed, built, and flew hot air balloons and early dirigibles, culminating in his winning the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize on 19 October 1901 for a flight that rounded the Eiffel Tower.

World's fair

Expointernational expositionWorld Fair
It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centrepiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution.
By far the most famous of these is the Eiffel Tower, built for the Exposition Universelle (1889).

Franz Reichelt

Franz Treichelt
Just two years later, on 4 February 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping from the first level of the tower (a height of 57 metres) to demonstrate his parachute design.
Franz Reichelt (1879 – 4 February 1912), also known as Frantz Reichelt or François Reichelt, was an Austrian-born French tailor, inventor and parachuting pioneer, now sometimes referred to as the Flying Tailor, who is remembered for jumping to his death from the Eiffel Tower while testing a wearable parachute of his own design.

Guy de Maupassant

MaupassantDe MaupassantHenri René Albert Guy de Maupassant
It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" (one member for each metre of the tower's height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet.
Maupassant was one of a fair number of 19th-century Parisians (including Charles Gounod, Alexandre Dumas, fils, and Charles Garnier) who did not care for the Eiffel Tower.

Maurice Koechlin

The design of the Eiffel Tower is attributed to Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers working for the Compagnie des Établissements Eiffel.
In 1887 he started work on his plans for the "Tour de 300 mètres" in Paris, along with his younger brother Henri Koechlin and civil engineer Émile Nouguier.

Latting Observatory

Latting Tower
Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853.
The Latting Observatory was an inspiration for the Eiffel Tower.

Elevator

liftliftselevators
Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels.
The Eiffel Tower has Otis double-deck elevators built into the legs of the tower, serving the ground level to the first and second levels.

Citroën

CitroenCitroën CarsCitroën Racing
From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citroën adorned three of the tower's sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time.
Mr Citroën was a keen marketer: he used the Eiffel Tower as the world's largest advertising sign, as recorded in Guinness World Records.

Airship

dirigibleairshipsdirigibles
On 19 October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.6 airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe for the first person to make a flight from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour.
On 19 October 1901 he flew his airship Number 6, a small semi-rigid with a detached keel, from the Parc Saint Cloud to and around the Eiffel Tower and back in under thirty minutes.

Santos-Dumont number 6

No.6Number 6No. 6
On 19 October 1901, Alberto Santos-Dumont, flying his No.6 airship, won a 100,000-franc prize offered by Henri Deutsch de la Meurthe for the first person to make a flight from St. Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back in less than half an hour.
In 1901 it was used by him to win the Deutsch de la Meurthe prize for a return from Parc Saint Cloud to the Eiffel Tower and back.

Cosmic ray

cosmic rayscosmic radiationcosmic-ray
He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays.
In 1909, Theodor Wulf developed an electrometer, a device to measure the rate of ion production inside a hermetically sealed container, and used it to show higher levels of radiation at the top of the Eiffel Tower than at its base.