Einsatzgruppen

EinsatzgruppeEinsatzgruppe AEinsatzgruppe BEinsatzgruppe CEinsatzgruppe DSonderkommando 1aEinsatzgruppe'' AEinsatzgruppe'' BEinsatzgruppe IVmass shootings
Einsatzgruppen (, "task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45) in German-occupied Europe.wikipedia
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Nazi Germany

Third ReichGermanGermany
Einsatzgruppen (, "task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45) in German-occupied Europe.
Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads inside the occupied territories conducted mass killings of millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state.

Final Solution

Final Solution to the Jewish QuestionThe Final SolutionEndlösung
The Einsatzgruppen were involved in the murder of much of the intelligentsia, including members of the priesthood, and cultural elite of Poland, and had an integral role in the implementation of the so-called "Final Solution to the Jewish Question" (Die Endlösung der Judenfrage) in territories conquered by Nazi Germany.
In 1941, wrote Raul Hilberg, in the first phase of the mass murder of Jews, the mobile killing units began to pursue their victims across occupied eastern territories; in the second phase, stretching across all of German-occupied Europe, the Jewish victims were sent on death trains to centralized extermination camps built for the purpose of systematic implementation of the Final Solution.

Heinrich Himmler

HimmlerAlfred HimmlerH Himmler
Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.
On Hitler's behalf, Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built extermination camps.

Wehrmacht

German ArmyGermanGerman forces
Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.
Closely cooperating with the SS and the Einsatzgruppen, the German armed forces committed numerous war crimes and atrocities, despite later denials and promotion of the myth of the Clean Wehrmacht.

Reinhard Heydrich

HeydrichR. HeydrichReinhardt Heydrich
Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.
He was directly responsible for the Einsatzgruppen, the special task forces that travelled in the wake of the German armies and murdered more than two million people by mass shooting and gassing, including 1.3 million Jews.

Order Police battalions

Orpo battalionsOrder Police battalionOrpo
The Einsatzgruppen worked hand-in-hand with the Order Police battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, and the Rumbula massacre (with about 25,000 killed in two days of shooting).
Alongside detachments from the Einsatzgruppen and the Waffen-SS, these units perpetrated mass murder of the Jewish population and were responsible for large-scale crimes against humanity targeting civilian populations.

The Holocaust

HolocaustShoahNazi Holocaust
Historian Raul Hilberg estimates that between 1941 and 1945 the Einsatzgruppen, related agencies and foreign auxiliary personnel killed more than two million people, including 1.3 million of the 5.5 to 6 million Jews murdered during the Holocaust.
Paramilitary death squads called Einsatzgruppen, in cooperation with the German Army and local collaborators, murdered around 1.3 million Jews in mass shootings and pogroms between 1941 and 1945.

Rumbula massacre

Rumbulakilled at Rumbulamass shootings in the Rumbula forest
The Einsatzgruppen worked hand-in-hand with the Order Police battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, and the Rumbula massacre (with about 25,000 killed in two days of shooting).
The Rumbula massacre was carried out by the Nazi Einsatzgruppe A with the help of local collaborators of the Arajs Kommando, with support from other such Latvian auxiliaries.

Schutzstaffel

SSßNazi SS
Einsatzgruppen (, "task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45) in German-occupied Europe.
The killings were committed by Einsatzgruppen (task forces; deployment groups), assisted by local paramilitary groups.

Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz

Selbstschutzcivilian volunteers
The Einsatzgruppen performed these murders with the support of the Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz, a paramilitary group consisting of ethnic Germans living in Poland.
The Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz operated before, and during the opening stages of, World War II in the western half of Poland and were responsible for, and took part in, massacres of ethnic Poles, along with SS Einsatzgruppen.

Werner Best

Dr Werner BestBEST, Karl Rudolf Werner
Heydrich placed SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Best in command, who assigned Hans-Joachim Tesmer to choose personnel for the task forces and their subgroups, called Einsatzkommandos, from among educated people with military experience and a strong ideological commitment to Nazism.
As a deputy of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, he organized the World War II SS-Einsatzgruppen paramilitary death squads that were responsible for mass killings.

Ordnungspolizei

Order PoliceOrpoPolizei
Heydrich instructed Wagner in meetings in late July that the Einsatzgruppen should undertake their operations in cooperation with the Ordnungspolizei (Order Police; Orpo) and military commanders in the area.
Twenty-three police battalions, formed into independent regiments or attached to Wehrmacht security divisions and Einsatzgruppen, perpetrated mass murder in the Holocaust and were responsible for widespread crimes against humanity and genocide targeting the civilian population.

Babi Yar

Babi Yar massacreBabyn Yar1941 massacre of Ukrainian Jews
The Einsatzgruppen worked hand-in-hand with the Order Police battalions on the Eastern Front to carry out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacre at Babi Yar with 33,771 Jews killed in two days, and the Rumbula massacre (with about 25,000 killed in two days of shooting).
Also present were SS-Standartenführer Paul Blobel, commander of Sonderkommando 4a, and his superior, SS-Brigadeführer Dr. Otto Rasch, commander of Einsatzgruppe C.

Reichsführer-SS

ReichsführerReichsführer SSReichsfuhrer-SS
Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.
He was overseer of the concentration camps, extermination camps (through the Concentration Camps Inspectorate and SS-TV), and the Einsatzgruppen mobile death squads (through the RSHA).

Bruno Streckenbach

Streckenbach
Streckenbach was responsible for many thousands of murders committed by Nazi mobile killing squads known as Einsatzgruppen.

Operation Barbarossa

German invasion of the Soviet Unioninvasion of the Soviet UnionGerman invasion
Under the direction of Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler and the supervision of SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, the Einsatzgruppen operated in territories occupied by the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) following the invasion of Poland in September 1939 and the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.
Mass shootings and gassing operations, carried out by the Nazis or willing collaborators, murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust.

Otto Rasch

Three Einsatzgruppen were commanded by holders of doctorates, one of whom (SS-Gruppenführer Otto Rasch) held a double doctorate.
SS-Brigadeführer Emil Otto Rasch (7 December 1891 – 1 November 1948) was a high-ranking Nazi official in the occupied Eastern territories, commanding Einsatzgruppe C (northern and central Ukraine) until October 1941.

Romani people

RomaniRomaGypsy
Almost all of the people they killed were civilians, beginning with the intelligentsia and swiftly progressing to Soviet political commissars, Jews, and Romani people as well as actual or alleged partisans throughout Eastern Europe.
They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (paramilitary death squads) on the Eastern Front.

Johannes Blaskowitz

BlaskowitzGeneral BlaskowitzGeneral Johannes Blaskowitz
For example, when Generaloberst Johannes Blaskowitz sent a memorandum of complaint to Hitler about the atrocities, Hitler dismissed his concerns as "childish", and Blaskowitz was relieved of his post in May 1940.
As a traditional soldier, Blaskowitz kept firm control on the men under his command in their dealings with civilians and was opposed to Army participation in war crimes by the SS and Einsatzgruppen.

Ernst Damzog

In September 1939, during the invasion of Poland, Damzog served as colonel (SS-Standartenführer) of Einsatzgruppe V (EG V-Allenstein), deployed with the 3rd Army (Wehrmacht) in Reichsgau Wartheland (Warthegau), which was carved out of the Polish lands annexed by Nazi Germany.

Einsatzkommando

Einsatzkommando 3EinsatzkommandosEinsatzkommando 2
Heydrich placed SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Best in command, who assigned Hans-Joachim Tesmer to choose personnel for the task forces and their subgroups, called Einsatzkommandos, from among educated people with military experience and a strong ideological commitment to Nazism.
Around 5 July 1941, Nebe consolidated Einsatzgruppe B near Minsk, establishing a headquarters and remaining there for some two months.

11th Army (Wehrmacht)

11th ArmyEleventh ArmyGerman 11th Army
Einsatzgruppen A, B, and C were to be attached to Army Groups North, Centre, and South; Einsatzgruppe D was assigned to the 11th Army.
Einsatzgruppe D was attached to the 11th Army.

Sicherheitspolizei

SiPoSecurity PoliceSIPO-SD
Originally part of the Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police; SiPo), two units of Einsatzgruppen were stationed in the Sudetenland in October 1938.
The Einsatzgruppen were formed under the direction of Heydrich and operated by the SS under the SiPo and SD.

Ludwig Hahn

Einsatzgruppen K and L, under SS-Oberführer Emanuel Schäfer and SS-Standartenführer Ludwig Hahn, worked alongside 5th and 6th Panzer Armies during the Ardennes offensive.
Hahn directly participated in the Einsatzgruppen killings in German-occupied Poland and was chief of the Nazi-security services in Kraków.

Gestapo

Geheime Staatspolizeithe authoritiesauthorities
Membership at this point was drawn from the SS, the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service; SD), the police, and the Gestapo.
The Gestapo also maintained offices at all Nazi concentration camps, held an office on the staff of the SS and Police Leaders, and supplied personnel as needed to formations such as the Einsatzgruppen.