El Niño

El NinoEl Nino-Southern OscillationEl Niño Southern OscillationEl Niño-Southern OscillationEl Niño eventsEl Niño phenomenonENSOLa Niñadroughts throughout Sundaland and tropical AsiaEl Nino,
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including the area off the Pacific coast of South America.wikipedia
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El Niño–Southern Oscillation

El Niño-Southern OscillationEl NiñoENSO
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including the area off the Pacific coast of South America.
The warming phase of the sea temperature is known as El Niño and the cooling phase as La Niña.

La Niña

La NinaEl Niño
The cool phase of ENSO is La Niña, with SSTs in the eastern Pacific below average, and air pressure high in the eastern Pacific and low in the western Pacific.
La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the colder counterpart of El Niño, as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern.

1982–83 El Niño event

1982–83El Niño event1982-83
Modern day research and reanalysis techniques have managed to find at least 26 El Niño events since 1900, with the 1982–83, 1997–98 and 2014–16 events among the strongest on record.
The 1982–83 El Niño event was one of the strongest El Niño events since records were kept.

2014–16 El Niño event

El Niñostrong El Niño2014-16 El Nino event
Modern day research and reanalysis techniques have managed to find at least 26 El Niño events since 1900, with the 1982–83, 1997–98 and 2014–16 events among the strongest on record.
The 1997–98 El Niño event was regarded as one of the strongest El Niño events in recorded history, which resulted in widespread drought, flooding and other natural disasters occurring across the globe.

Gilbert Walker

Gilbert Thomas WalkerSir Gilbert WalkerSir Gilbert Thomas Walker
In 1924, Gilbert Walker (for whom the Walker circulation is named) coined the term "Southern Oscillation".
He is known for his groundbreaking description of the Southern Oscillation, a major phenomenon of global climate, and for discovering what is named after him as the Walker circulation, and for greatly advancing the study of climate in general.

Pacific Ocean

PacificSouth PacificWestern Pacific
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including the area off the Pacific coast of South America.
To determine the phase of ENSO, the most recent three-month sea surface temperature average for the area approximately 3000 km to the southeast of Hawaii is computed, and if the region is more than 0.5 C-change above or below normal for that period, then an El Niño or La Niña is considered in progress.

Moche culture

MocheMochicaMoche civilization
For example, it is thought that El Niño affected the Moche in modern-day Peru, who sacrificed humans in order to try to prevent the rains.
Studies of ice cores drilled from glaciers in the Andes reveal climatic events between 536 and 594 AD, possibly a super El Niño, that resulted in 30 years of intense rain and flooding followed by 30 years of drought, part of the aftermath of the climate changes of 535–536.

Monsoon

southwest monsoonmonsoonsnortheast monsoon
Cases of El Niño-type events in both oceans simultaneously have been linked to severe famines related to the extended failure of monsoon rains.
Thus a better understanding of the possible links between El Niño, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow, wind pattern off western Australia, and ice volume expansion and contraction can be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close stratigraphic intervals.

East Africa

Eastern AfricaEastEastern
In Africa, East Africa—including Kenya, Tanzania, and the White Nile basin—experiences, in the long rains from March to May, wetter-than-normal conditions.
Rainfall in East Africa is influenced by El Niño events, which tend to increase rainfall except in the northern and western parts of the Ethiopian and Eritrean highlands, where they produce drought and poor Nile floods.

Coral bleaching

bleachingbleachedbleaching events
Since then, mass coral bleaching has become common worldwide, with all regions having suffered "severe bleaching".
The longest and most destructive coral bleaching event was because of the El Niño that occurred from 2014–2017.

1997–98 El Niño event

1997–98similarly strong1997 North American winter storms
Modern day research and reanalysis techniques have managed to find at least 26 El Niño events since 1900, with the 1982–83, 1997–98 and 2014–16 events among the strongest on record.

Indian Ocean

IndianIndoSouthern Indian Ocean
As warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, it takes the rain with it, causing extensive drought in the western Pacific and rainfall in the normally dry eastern Pacific.
Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, and changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño (or the Indian Ocean Dipole), events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean.

Western Hemisphere Warm Pool

About half of El Niño events persist sufficiently into the spring months for the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool to become unusually large in summer.
A study of climate records has shown a relationship between El Niño and the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool (WHWP).

Horse latitudes

subtropical ridgesubtropical anticyclonesubtropical high
Most tropical cyclones form on the side of the subtropical ridge closer to the equator, then move poleward past the ridge axis before recurving into the main belt of the Westerlies.
Areas west of Japan and Korea tend to experience many fewer September–November tropical cyclone impacts during El Niño and neutral years, while mainland China experiences much greater landfall frequency during La Niña years.

Jacob Bjerknes

Bjerknes, Jacob Aall BonnevieJ. BjerknesJacob A. Bjerknes
He and others (including Norwegian-American meteorologist Jacob Bjerknes) are generally credited with identifying the El Niño effect.

Tuvalu

Ellice IslandsElliceEllice group
As a result of this change tropical cyclones are 50% less likely to make landfall on Queensland, while the risk of a tropical cyclone is elevated for island nations like Niue, French Polynesia, Tonga, Tuvalu, and the Cook Islands.
Tuvalu experiences the effects of El Niño and La Niña, which is caused by changes in ocean temperatures in the equatorial and central Pacific.

Tehuantepecer

Tehuano windTehuanoTehuantepec gap wind event
The synoptic condition for the Tehuano wind, or "Tehuantepecer", is associated with a high-pressure area forming in Sierra Madre of Mexico in the wake of an advancing cold front, which causes winds to accelerate through the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.
Wind magnitude is greater during El Niño years than during La Niña years, due to the more frequent cold frontal incursions during El Niño winters.

Peruvian anchoveta

anchovetaEngraulis ringensanchovies
The world's largest fishery collapsed due to overfishing during the 1972 El Niño Peruvian anchoveta reduction.
After a period of plenty in the late 1960s, the population was greatly reduced by overfishing and the 1972 El Niño event, when warm water drifted over the cold Humboldt Current and lowered the depth of the thermocline.

Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
For example, the El Niño cycle is associated with increased risks of some of the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever.
Greater rainfall in certain areas of India and following an El Niño event is associated with increased mosquito numbers.

Mackerel

batanggrey mackereljack mackerel
During the 1982–83 event, jack mackerel and anchoveta populations were reduced, scallops increased in warmer water, but hake followed cooler water down the continental slope, while shrimp and sardines moved southward, so some catches decreased while others increased.

Mosquito

Culicidaemosquitoesmosquitos
For example, the El Niño cycle is associated with increased risks of some of the diseases transmitted by mosquitoes, such as malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever.
A positive correlation between malaria outbreaks and these climatic variables has been demonstrated in China; and El Niño has been shown to impact the location and number of outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases observed in East Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and India.

Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki's diseaseKawasaki syndromemucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
ENSO conditions have also been related to Kawasaki disease incidence in Japan and the west coast of the United States, via the linkage to tropospheric winds across the north Pacific Ocean.
This association with tropospheric winds has been shown to be modulated at seasonal and interannual timescales by the El Niño–Southern Oscillation phenomenon, further indicating the agent responsible for the disease is a wind-borne pathogen.

International Date Line

International Datelinedate linedateline
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including the area off the Pacific coast of South America.

South America

South AmericanSouthSouth-America
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including the area off the Pacific coast of South America.

Sea surface temperature

sea surface temperatureswater temperaturesocean temperature
The ENSO is the cycle of warm and cold sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical central and eastern Pacific Ocean.