Elastography

Tactile imagingtransient elastographyacoustic radiation force impulse imagingAcoustic Radiation Force ImpulseAcoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) ImagingEchosenselasticitymechanical imagingshear waveShear Wave Elasticity Imaging
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.wikipedia
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Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.
As a discipline and in its widest sense, it is part of biological imaging and incorporates radiology, which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, medical ultrasonography or ultrasound, endoscopy, elastography, tactile imaging, thermography, medical photography, and nuclear medicine functional imaging techniques as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT).

Medical ultrasound

ultrasoundultrasonographymedical ultrasonography
The most prominent techniques use ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to make both the stiffness map and an anatomical image for comparison. Elastographic techniques use ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pressure/stress sensors in tactile imaging (TI) using tactile sensor(s).
Other types can display blood flow, motion of tissue over time, the location of blood, the presence of specific molecules, the stiffness of tissue, or the anatomy of a three-dimensional region.

Elasticity (physics)

elasticityelasticelasticity theory
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.

Cirrhosis

cirrhosis of the liverliver cirrhosisliver fibrosis
Liver stiffness is usually indicative of fibrosis or steatosis (fatty liver disease), which are in turn indicative of numerous disease conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis.
Cirrhosis is diagnosed with a variety of elastography techniques.

Fibrosis

fibroticscarringfibrogenic
Liver stiffness is usually indicative of fibrosis or steatosis (fatty liver disease), which are in turn indicative of numerous disease conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis.
In Bristol University's study Children of the 90s, 2.5% of 4,000 people born in 1991 and 1992 were found by ultrasound scanning at the age of 18 to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; five years later transient elastography (fibroscan) found over 20% to have the fatty deposits on the liver of steatosis, indicating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; half of those were classified as severe.

Steatosis

fatty changefat in the liverfatty degeneration
Liver stiffness is usually indicative of fibrosis or steatosis (fatty liver disease), which are in turn indicative of numerous disease conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis.
In Bristol University's study Children of the 90s, 2.5% of 4,000 people born in 1991 and 1992 were found by ultrasound scanning at the age of 18 to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; five years later transient elastography (fibroscan) found over 20% to have the fatty deposits on the liver of steatosis, indicating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; half of those were classified as severe.

Fatty liver disease

fatty liverhepatic steatosisAlcoholic fatty liver
Liver stiffness is usually indicative of fibrosis or steatosis (fatty liver disease), which are in turn indicative of numerous disease conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis.
In the study of Children of the 90s, 2.5% born in 1991 and 1992 were found by ultrasound at the age of 18 to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; five years later transient elastography (fibroscan) found over 20% to have the fatty deposits on the liver, indicating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; half of those were classified as severe.

Tactile sensor

tactile perceptiontactile sensingtactels
Elastographic techniques use ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pressure/stress sensors in tactile imaging (TI) using tactile sensor(s).
Tactile imaging, as a medical imaging modality, translating the sense of touch into a digital image is based on the tactile sensors.

Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Certain types of elastography are also suitable for musculoskeletal imaging, and they can determine the mechanical properties and state of muscles and tendons.
A non-invasive elastography technique that measures muscle noise is undergoing experimentation to provide a way of monitoring neuromuscular disease.

Palpation

palpablepalpatedpalpate
Palpation is the practice of feeling the stiffness of a patient's tissues with the practitioner's hands.
Nowadays, the medical imaging modality of elastography can also be used to determine the stiffness of tissues.

Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

Children of the 90sALSPACChildren of the 90s project (ALSPAC)
In Bristol University's study Children of the 90s, 2.5% of 4,000 people born in 1991 and 1992 were found by ultrasound scanning at the age of 18 to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; five years later transient elastography (fibroscan) found over 20% to have the fatty deposits on the liver of steatosis, indicating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; half of those were classified as severe.
In the study, 2.5% of 4,000 people born in 1991 and 1992 were found by ultrasound scanning at the age of 18 to have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; five years later transient elastography (fibroscan) found over 20% to have the fatty deposits on the liver of steatosis, indicating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; half of those were classified as severe.

Stiffness

flexibilityrigidityrigid
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.

Soft tissue

soft tissuessoft-tissueanimal tissue
Elastography is a medical imaging modality that maps the elastic properties and stiffness of soft tissue.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
The main idea is that whether the tissue is hard or soft will give diagnostic information about the presence or status of disease.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
For example, cancerous tumours will often be harder than the surrounding tissue, and diseased livers are stiffer than healthy ones.

Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesislivers
For example, cancerous tumours will often be harder than the surrounding tissue, and diseased livers are stiffer than healthy ones.

Biopsy

biopsiestissue biopsybiopsied
It can be used for additional diagnostic information compared to a mere anatomical image, and it can be used to guide biopsies or, increasingly, replace them entirely.

Hepatitis

chronic hepatitisliver inflammationacute hepatitis
Liver stiffness is usually indicative of fibrosis or steatosis (fatty liver disease), which are in turn indicative of numerous disease conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis.

False positives and false negatives

false positivefalse negativefalse positives
Elastography is particularly advantageous in this case because when fibrosis is diffuse (spread around in clumps rather than continuous scarring), a biopsy can easily miss sampling the diseased tissue, which results in a false negative misdiagnosis.

Breast

breastsbosombreast tissue
Elastography is used for detection and diagnosis of breast, thyroid, and prostate cancers.

Thyroid

thyroid glandthyroid folliclethyroid function
Elastography is used for detection and diagnosis of breast, thyroid, and prostate cancers.

Prostate

prostate glandprostaticventral prostate
Elastography is used for detection and diagnosis of breast, thyroid, and prostate cancers.

Human musculoskeletal system

musculoskeletalmusculoskeletal systemlocomotor
Certain types of elastography are also suitable for musculoskeletal imaging, and they can determine the mechanical properties and state of muscles and tendons.

Tendon

tendonssinewtendinous
Certain types of elastography are also suitable for musculoskeletal imaging, and they can determine the mechanical properties and state of muscles and tendons.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
For example, magnetic resonance elastography is capable of assessing the stiffness of the brain, and there is a growing body of scientific literature on elastography in healthy and diseased brains.