Elbridge Gerry

Elbridge T. GerryMr. GerryDeath of Elbridge GerryElbridge Gerry (MA)Elbridge T GerryEldridge GerryGerry, Elbridge
Elbridge Thomas Gerry (July 17, 1744 (O.S. July 6, 1744) – November 23, 1814) was an American politician and diplomat.wikipedia
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United States Bill of Rights

Bill of RightsU.S. Bill of RightsUS Bill of Rights
He was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not then include a Bill of Rights.
On September 12, George Mason of Virginia suggested the addition of a Bill of Rights to the Constitution modeled on previous state declarations, and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts made it a formal motion.

XYZ Affair

failed diplomatic attemptsLucien HautevalM. Hauteval
He was a member of a diplomatic delegation to France that was treated poorly in the XYZ Affair, in which Federalists held him responsible for a breakdown in negotiations.
The diplomats, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry, were approached through informal channels by agents of the French foreign minister, Talleyrand, who demanded bribes and a loan before formal negotiations could begin.

Mercy Otis Warren

Mercy Warren
He frequently communicated with other Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, and others.
Observations was long thought to be the work of other writers, most notably Elbridge Gerry.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceAmerican Declaration of IndependenceU.S. Declaration of Independence
Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.

Marblehead, Massachusetts

MarbleheadMarblehead NeckMarblehead, MA
Elbridge Gerry was born on July 17, 1744, in Marblehead, Massachusetts.

Governor of Massachusetts

GovernorMassachusetts GovernorMassachusetts
Gerry thereafter became a Democratic-Republican, running unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts several times before winning the office in 1810.

Elmwood (Cambridge, Massachusetts)

ElmwoodElmwood estateElmwood House
This 100 acre property, known as Elmwood, became the family home for the rest of Gerry's life.
It is known for several prominent former residents, including: Thomas Oliver (1734–1815), royal Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts; Elbridge Gerry (1744–1814), signer of the US Declaration of Independence, Vice President of the United States and eponym of the term "gerrymandering"; and James Russell Lowell (1819–1891), noted American writer, poet, and foreign diplomat.

Children's Island

Cat IslandCat Island (Massachusetts)Cat Island (Salem City)
Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island; because the means of transmission of the disease were not known at the time, fears amongst the local population led to protests which escalated into violence that wrecked the facilities and threatened the proprietors' other properties.
The owners of the future Essex Hospital were four popular Marblehead political figures: John Glover, Jonathan Glover (John Glover's brother), Azor Orne, and Elbridge Gerry; they purchased Children's Island (Catt Island) on September 2, 1773, although the idea remained contentious.

Massachusetts Provincial Congress

Provincial CongressMassachusettsProvincial Congress of Massachusetts
Gerry was elected to the provincial assembly, which reconstituted itself as the Massachusetts Provincial Congress after British Governor Thomas Gage dissolved the body in October 1774.

Democratic-Republican Party

Democratic-RepublicanDemocratic-RepublicansRepublican
As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814.

Civilian control of the military

civilian controlcivilian control over the militaryunrestricted obedience
Gerry's political philosophy was one of limited central government, and he regularly advocated for the maintenance of civilian control of the military.
Even more forceful are the words of Elbridge Gerry, a delegate to the American Constitutional Convention, who wrote that "[s]tanding armies in time of peace are inconsistent with the principles of republican Governments, dangerous to the liberties of a free people, and generally converted into destructive engines for establishing despotism."

Essex Hospital

established a hospital
Gerry and other prominent Marbleheaders had established a hospital for performing smallpox inoculations on Cat Island; because the means of transmission of the disease were not known at the time, fears amongst the local population led to protests which escalated into violence that wrecked the facilities and threatened the proprietors' other properties.
The owners of the future Essex Hospital were four popular Marblehead political figures: John Glover, Jonathan Glover (John Glover's brother), Azor Orne, and Elbridge Gerry; they purchased Children's Island (Catt Island) on September 2, 1773.

Articles of Confederation

Articles of Confederation and Perpetual UnionConfederationArticles
Elected to the Second Continental Congress, Gerry signed both the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation.

John Adams

AdamsJohnPresident John Adams
He frequently communicated with other Massachusetts opponents of British policy, including Samuel Adams, John Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, and others.
The peace commission that Adams appointed consisted of John Marshall, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney and Elbridge Gerry.

Constitutional Convention (United States)

Constitutional ConventionPhiladelphia ConventionConstitutional Convention of 1787
He was one of three men who attended the Constitutional Convention in 1787 who refused to sign the United States Constitution because it did not then include a Bill of Rights.
The 1776 "old republican" delegates like Elbridge Gerry (MA) found anything military or hereditary anathema.

Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

Tenth Amendment10th AmendmentTenth
He sought unsuccessfully to insert the word "expressly" into the Tenth Amendment, which might have more significantly limited the federal government's power.
After the Constitution was ratified, South Carolina Representative Thomas Tudor Tucker and Massachusetts Representative Elbridge Gerry separately proposed similar amendments limiting the federal government to powers "expressly" delegated, which would have denied implied powers.

James Madison

MadisonPresident MadisonPresident James Madison
As a Democratic-Republican he served as the fifth vice president of the United States under President James Madison from March 1813 until his death in November 1814.

Harvard College

HarvardHarvard Universityhouses
He was first educated by private tutors, and entered Harvard College shortly before turning fourteen.

Gerrymandering

gerrymandergerrymanderedgerrymanders
The phenomenon of gerrymandering was named after him.
The term is named after Elbridge Gerry, who, as Governor of Massachusetts in 1812, signed a bill that created a partisan district in the Boston area that was compared to the shape of a mythological salamander.

Christopher Gore

Governor Gore
Republican James Sullivan won the governor's seat from Strong in 1807, but his successor was unable to hold the seat in the 1809 election, which went to Federalist Christopher Gore.
He served one term, losing to Democratic-Republican Elbridge Gerry in 1810.

United States Electoral College

Electoral Collegepresidential electorelectoral votes
Gerry also advanced numerous proposals for indirect elections of the President of the United States, most of them involving limiting the right to vote to the state governors and electors.
He also notes that some of the most vociferous critics of a national popular vote at the constitutional convention were delegates from free states, including Gouverneur Morris of Pennsylvania, who declared that such a system would lead to a "great evil of cabal and corruption," and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who called a national popular vote "radically vicious".

Caleb Strong

Governor Caleb StrongStrong
The compromise was adopted on a narrow vote in which the Massachusetts delegation was divided, Gerry and Caleb Strong voting in favor.
In the election of 1800 Strong was nominated by the Federalists as their candidate for governor; his principal opponent was Elbridge Gerry, nominated by the Democratic-Republicans.

Edmund Randolph

Edmund Jennings RandolphMr. RandolphEdmund J. Randolph
He was one of only three delegates who voted against the proposed constitution in the convention (the others were George Mason and Edmund Randolph), citing a concern about the convention's lack of authority to enact such major changes to the nation's system of government, and to the constitution's lack of "federal features."
Randolph ultimately refused to sign the final document, one of only three members who remained in the Constitutional Convention yet refused to sign (together with fellow Virginian George Mason and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts).

Essex County, Massachusetts

Essex CountyEssex Essex County, Massachusetts
The shape of one of the state senate districts in Essex County was compared to a salamander by a local Federalist newspaper in a political cartoon, calling it a "Gerry-mander".
Essex County is where Elbridge Gerry (who was born and raised in Marblehead) created a legislative district in 1812 that gave rise to the word gerrymandering.

Elbridge Thomas Gerry

Elbridge T. GerryElbridge Gerry
Gerry's grandson Elbridge Thomas Gerry became a distinguished lawyer and philanthropist in New York.
Elbridge Thomas Gerry (December 25, 1837 – February 18, 1927), usually called "Commodore" Gerry due to the office he held with the New York Yacht Club from 1886 to 1892, was an American lawyer and reformer who was the grandson of U.S. Vice President Elbridge Gerry.