Election

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An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.wikipedia
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Psephology

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Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections (especially with a view to predicting future results).
As such, psephology attempts to scientifically explicate elections.

Legislature

legislativeLegislative powerlegislative branch
Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government.
In a democracy, legislators are most commonly popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are also used, particularly for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber.

Non-partisan democracy

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In a direct democracy, one type of non-partisan democracy, any eligible person can be nominated.
Nonpartisan democracy (also no-party democracy) is a system of representative government or organization such that universal and periodic elections take place without reference to political parties.

Preselection

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In many cases, nomination for office is mediated through preselection processes in organized political parties.
Preselection is the process by which a candidate is selected, usually by a political party, to contest an election for political office.

Party-list proportional representation

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Among the former are party-list proportional representation and additional member system.
Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems emphasizing proportional representation in elections in which multiple candidates are elected (e.g., elections to parliament) through allocations to an electoral list.

Secret ballot

secretsecret voteAustralian Ballot
The secret ballot is a relatively modern development, but it is now considered crucial in most free and fair elections, as it limits the effectiveness of intimidation. This can include falsifying voter instructions, violation of the secret ballot, ballot stuffing, tampering with voting machines, destruction of legitimately cast ballots, voter suppression, voter registration fraud, failure to validate voter residency, fraudulent tabulation of results, and use of physical force or verbal intimation at polling places.
The secret ballot, also known as Australian ballot, is a voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are anonymous, forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation, blackmailing, and potential vote buying.

Dissolution of parliament

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However, they tend to greatly lengthen campaigns, and make dissolving the legislature (parliamentary system) more problematic if the date should happen to fall at time when dissolution is inconvenient (e.g. when war breaks out).
In parliamentary and some semi-presidential systems, a dissolution of parliament is the dispersal of a legislature at the call of an election.

Dictator

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Dictators may use the powers of the executive (police, martial law, censorship, physical implementation of the election mechanism, etc.) to remain in power despite popular opinion in favor of removal.
Dictatorships are often characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties; proclamation of a state of emergency; rule by decree; repression of political opponents; not abiding by the rule of law procedures, and cult of personality.

Foreign electoral intervention

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Foreign electoral intervention can also occur with Russia being the main culprit in recent years.
Foreign electoral interventions are attempts by governments, covertly or overtly, to influence elections in another country.

Referendum

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To elect means "to select or make a decision", and so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections, especially in the United States. Published results usually show nearly 100% voter turnout and high support (typically at least ~80%, and close to 100% in many cases) for the prescribed candidate(s) or for the referendum choice that favors the political party in power.
Dictators may also make use of referendums as well as show elections to further legitimize their authority such as Benito Mussolini in 1934, Adolf Hitler in 1936, Ferdinand Marcos in 1973, Park Chung-hee in 1972, and Francisco Franco in 1947.

Voter suppression

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This can include falsifying voter instructions, violation of the secret ballot, ballot stuffing, tampering with voting machines, destruction of legitimately cast ballots, voter suppression, voter registration fraud, failure to validate voter residency, fraudulent tabulation of results, and use of physical force or verbal intimation at polling places.
Voter suppression is a strategy used to influence the outcome of an election by discouraging or preventing specific groups of people from voting.

Political party

political partiespartyparties
Published results usually show nearly 100% voter turnout and high support (typically at least ~80%, and close to 100% in many cases) for the prescribed candidate(s) or for the referendum choice that favors the political party in power.
A political party is an organized group of people who have the same ideology, or who otherwise have the same political positions, and who field candidates for elections, in an attempt to get them elected and thereby implement the party's agenda.

Voter turnout

turnoutturned outvoter participation
Published results usually show nearly 100% voter turnout and high support (typically at least ~80%, and close to 100% in many cases) for the prescribed candidate(s) or for the referendum choice that favors the political party in power.
Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election.

Dictatorship

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Show elections are a common event in dictatorial regimes that feel the need to feign the appearance of public legitimacy.
On the other hand, democracy, which is generally compared to the concept of dictatorship, is defined as a form of government where the supremacy belongs to the population and rulers are elected through contested elections.

Electoral fraud

ballot stuffingelection fraudvoter fraud
This can include falsifying voter instructions, violation of the secret ballot, ballot stuffing, tampering with voting machines, destruction of legitimately cast ballots, voter suppression, voter registration fraud, failure to validate voter residency, fraudulent tabulation of results, and use of physical force or verbal intimation at polling places.
Electoral fraud, sometimes referred to as election fraud, election manipulation or vote rigging, is illegal interference with the process of an election, either by increasing the vote share of the favored candidate, depressing the vote share of the rival candidates, or both.

Mandate (politics)

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The nature of democracy is that elected officials are accountable to the people, and they must return to the voters at prescribed intervals to seek their mandate to continue in office.
The concept of a government having a legitimate mandate to govern via the fair winning of a democratic election is a central idea of representative democracy.

Elections in the United States

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Early elections in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males.
A primary election is an election in which registered voters in a jurisdiction (nominating primary) select a political party's candidate for a later election.

People's Parliament

People's SaeimaPeople's Saeima of LatviaFraudulent elections
An example of this is the elections of the People's Parliaments in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1940 shortly after the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states; where those who voted received stamps in their passport for voting and those who did not vote did not receive stamps and were persecuted as enemies of the people.
The term People's Parliaments or People's Assemblies (Tautas Saeima, Liaudies Seimas) was used in 1940 for puppet legislatures put together after show elections in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to legitimize the occupation by the Soviet Union.

North Korea

Democratic People's Republic of KoreaNorthDPRK
Another example is in contemporary North Korea.
North Korea officially describes itself as a "self-reliant" socialist state, and formally holds elections, though they have been described by outside observers as sham elections.

Elections in the Soviet Union

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Examples of sham elections are the elections held in Fascist Italy in 1929 and 1934, elections in Nazi Germany, the 1958 Portuguese presidential election, most communist and socialist states (East Germany, the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, Ba'athist Iraq, etc.).
The Constitution and laws applied to elections in all Soviets, from the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union, the Union republics and autonomous republics, through to regions, districts and towns.

Sortition

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The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern representative democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens, where the Elections were not used were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition, also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.
It also minimizes factionalism, since there would be no point making promises to win over key constituencies if one was to be chosen by lot, while elections, by contrast, foster it.

Concession (politics)

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In politics, a concession is the act of a losing candidate publicly yielding to a winning candidate after an election after the overall result of the vote has become clear.

Landslide victory

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A landslide victory is an electoral victory in a political system, when a change in people's views on political matters results in one candidate or party receiving an overwhelming majority of the votes or seats in the elected body, thus all but utterly eliminating the opponents.

Issue voting

The term issue voting describes when voters cast their vote in elections based on political issues.