Elective monarchy

electiveelectedelected kingelective monarchieselectionelected monarchelected monarchysemi-electiveelected kingselected to the throne of Poland
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.wikipedia
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Monarch

kingSovereignkings
Today, almost all monarchies are hereditary monarchies in which the monarchs come from one royal family with the office of sovereign being passed from one family member to another upon the death or abdication of the incumbent.
Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights (often referred to as the throne or the crown) or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch.

Monarchy

kingdommonarchieskingdoms
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
In most cases, the succession of monarchies is hereditary, but there are also elective and self-proclaimed monarchies, often forming dynastic periods and association, which is sometimes challenged by diverging lineage and legitimism.

Holy Roman Emperor

EmperorHoly Roman EmperorsImperial
However, from 1440 to 1740, a Habsburg was always elected emperor, the throne becoming unofficially hereditary. Since 1526, when the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I assumed the Bohemian Crown, it was always held by the Habsburgs, who expected this situation to go on indefinitely.
From an autocracy in Carolingian times (AD 800–924) the title by the 13th century evolved into an elective monarchy, with the emperor chosen by the prince-electors.

Prince-bishop

prince-bishopricPrince BishopPrince-Archbishop
Thus the prince-bishoprics were elective monarchies too.
A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch.

Monarchy of Sweden

King of SwedenKingmonarch
Originally, the Kings of Sweden were elected by all free men at the Mora Thing.
Originally an elective monarchy, it became an hereditary monarchy in the 16th century during the reign of Gustav Vasa, though virtually all monarchs before that belonged to a limited and small number of families which are considered to be the royal dynasties of Sweden.

Order of succession

successionline of successionsuccession laws
Eventually, however, most elected monarchies introduced hereditary succession, guaranteeing that the title and office stayed within the royal family and specifying, more or less precisely, the order of succession.
Examples are Henry the Young King and the heirs of elective monarchies, such as the use of the title King of the Romans for the Habsburg emperors.

Monarchy of Denmark

King of DenmarkQueen of DenmarkDanish Monarchy
The Danish monarchy was also officially elective, although the eldest son of the reigning monarch was usually elected.
Originally an elective monarchy, it became hereditary only in the 17th century during the reign of Frederick III.

Szlachta

szlachcicnoblePolish nobility
In Poland, after the death of the last Piast in 1370, Polish kings were initially elected by a small council; gradually, this privilege was granted to all members of the szlachta (Polish nobility).
Apart from providing officers for the army, among its chief civic obligations were electing the monarch, plus filling advisory and honorary roles at court, e.g., Stolnik - "Master of the King's Pantry," or their assistant, Podstoli, and in the state government, e.g. Podskarbi, "Minister to the Treasury".

Gustav I of Sweden

Gustav VasaGustav IGustav I Vasa
Elective monarchy continued until 1544, when the Riksdag of the Estates designated the heirs of King Gustav Vasa as the heirs to the throne.
In 1544, he abolished Medieval Sweden's elective monarchy and replaced it with a hereditary monarchy under the House of Vasa and its successors, including the current House of Bernadotte.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthPolandPolish
Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania during the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795) were elected by gatherings of crowds of nobles at a field in Wola, today a neighbourhood of Warsaw.
Sigismund believed he could preserve his dynasty by adopting elective monarchy.

Frederick III of Denmark

Frederick IIIFrederik IIIFrederick II (later Frederick III of Denmark)
This continued until 1660, when a hereditary and absolute monarchy was instituted by Frederick III.
Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy, which lasted until 1848 in Denmark.

Monarchy of Norway

King of NorwayMonarchKing
Though the monarchy of Norway was originally hereditary, it too became elective in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
Although Norway has officially been a hereditary kingdom throughout that time, there have been several instances of elective succession: most recently, in 1905 Haakon VII was elected by the people of Norway to the position of king through a plebiscite.

Poland

PolishPOLRepublic of Poland
In Poland, after the death of the last Piast in 1370, Polish kings were initially elected by a small council; gradually, this privilege was granted to all members of the szlachta (Polish nobility).
The 1569 Union of Lublin established the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, a more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchy, but which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament.

Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor

Ferdinand IFerdinandEmperor Ferdinand I
Since 1526, when the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I assumed the Bohemian Crown, it was always held by the Habsburgs, who expected this situation to go on indefinitely.
Both Hungary and Bohemia were elective monarchies, where the parliaments had the sovereign right to decide about the person of the king.

Frederick V of the Palatinate

Frederick V, Elector PalatineFrederick VFrederick of the Palatinate
In 1618 the Bohemians chose to exercise in practice their legal right to choose a King at their discretion, and bestowed the Bohemian Crown on Frederick V, Elector Palatine – "The Winter King".
The Kingdom of Bohemia was an elective monarchy, and despite being a kingdom, was a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

Tanistry

tanisttánaistetànaiste
In Ireland, from the beginning of recorded history until the mid-16th/early 17th century, succession was determined by an elective system based on patrilineal relationship known as tanistry.
He did so to try to eliminate the strife caused by the elective law, which encouraged rival claimants to fight for the Throne.

Hereditary monarchy

hereditaryhereditary monarchieshereditary monarch
An elective monarchy is a monarchy ruled by an elected monarch, in contrast to a hereditary monarchy in which the office is automatically passed down as a family inheritance.
Elective monarchy can function as de facto hereditary monarchy.

Kalākaua

King KalākauaKing David KalākauaDavid Kalākaua
King Kalākaua was elected by the legislature in 1874, after Lunalilo's death.
Succeeding Lunalilo, he was elected to the vacant throne of Hawaiʻi against Queen Emma.

Lunalilo

William Charles LunaliloKing LunaliloWilliam C. Lunalilo
Following the 1872 death of King Kamehameha V, a non-binding referendum was held, which William Charles Lunalilo won; he was subsequently elected king by the legislature in 1873.
Due to his popularity and status as Hawaii's first elected monarch, he became known as "The People's King".

Christian II of Denmark

Christian IIKing Christian IIChristian
The election was usually contested through a Danish invasion of Sweden until Christian II of Denmark after his reconquest of Sweden had all those voting against him executed in the Stockholm Bloodbath (1520), which ended all support for the Danish king on the Swedish throne.
On 1 November, the representatives of the nation swore fealty to Christian as hereditary king of Sweden, though the law of the land distinctly provided that Sweden should be an elective monarchy.

First Empire of Haiti

Empire of HaitiHaitiEmperor of Haiti
The Empire of Haiti, established in 1804, was also elective.
The First Empire of Haiti (Empire d'Haïti; Haitian Creole: Anpi an Ayiti) was an elective monarchy in North America.

Roman Kingdom

Roman monarchyRegal periodmonarchy
In the ancient Kingdom of Rome, the kings were elected by the Assemblies.

Holy Roman Empire

ImperialHoly Roman EmperorGermany
The Holy Roman Empire is perhaps the best-known example of an elective monarchy.

Prince-elector

ElectorElectorsprince elector
During that period, the emperor was elected from within the House of Habsburg by a small council of nobles called prince-electors.

List of Bohemian monarchs

King of BohemiaDuke of BohemiaBohemia
Since medieval times, the King of Bohemia was elected by the Estates of Lands of the Bohemian Crown.