Electric arc

arcingarcarc dischargeelectrical arcflashoverelectrical arcingarcselectrical arcselectric arc dischargeelectric arcs
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge.wikipedia
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Electrical breakdown

dielectric breakdownbreakdowndisruptive discharge
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge.
Electrical breakdown may be a momentary event (as in an electrostatic discharge), or may lead to a continuous arc if protective devices fail to interrupt the current in a power circuit.

Arc lamp

carbon arc lamparc lightarc lighting
In the late 1800s, electric arc lighting was in wide use for public lighting. Industrially, electric arcs are used for welding, plasma cutting, for electrical discharge machining, as an arc lamp in movie projectors, and followspots in stage lighting.
An arc lamp or arc light is a lamp that produces light by an electric arc (also called a voltaic arc).

Arc suppression

Unsuppressed arcing
Techniques for arc suppression can be used to reduce the duration or likelihood of arc formation.
The spark is a luminous discharge of highly energized electrons and ions, and is an electric arc.

Glow discharge

Electric glow dischargeAston Dark SpaceDirect-current discharge
An arc discharge is characterized by a lower voltage than a glow discharge and relies on thermionic emission of electrons from the electrodes supporting the arc. An archaic term is voltaic arc, as used in the phrase "voltaic arc lamp".
If the current is increased still further, other factors come into play and an arc discharge begins.

Hertha Ayrton

Hertha Marks AyrtonAyrton, HerthaBritish
In 1895, Hertha Marks Ayrton wrote a series of articles for the Electrician, explaining that these phenomena were the result of oxygen coming into contact with the carbon rods used to create the arc. In 1899, she was the first woman ever to read her own paper before the Institution of Electrical Engineers (IEE).
Known in adult life as Hertha Ayrton, born Phoebe Sarah Marks, she was awarded the Hughes Medal by the Royal Society for her work on electric arcs and ripples in sand and water.

Arc welding

arc welderArcarc welders
This is the way a welder starts to weld a joint, momentarily touching the welding electrode against the workpiece then withdrawing it till a stable arc is formed.
It is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between a metal stick ("electrode") and the base material to melt the metals at the point of contact.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible light.
Striations or string-like structures, also known as Birkeland currents, are seen in many plasmas, like the plasma ball, the aurora, lightning, electric arcs, solar flares, and supernova remnants.

Electric spark

sparksparkselectrical spark
The demonstration produced a "feeble" arc, not readily distinguished from a sustained spark, between charcoal points.
If the power supply continues to supply current, the spark will evolve into a continuous discharge called an electric arc.

Electric discharge

electrical dischargedischargeelectrical discharges
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces a prolonged electrical discharge.

Fluorescent lamp

fluorescent lightingfluorescent lightfluorescent
For example, fluorescent tubes, mercury, sodium, and metal-halide lamps are used for lighting; xenon arc lamps have been used for movie projectors.
The terminal voltage across an operating lamp varies depending on the arc current, tube diameter, temperature, and fill gas.

Welding

weldedweldwelder
Industrially, electric arcs are used for welding, plasma cutting, for electrical discharge machining, as an arc lamp in movie projectors, and followspots in stage lighting.
Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame (chemical), an electric arc (electrical), a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound.

Electric arc furnace

arc furnacearc meltingelectric furnace
Electric arc furnaces are used to produce steel and other substances.
An electric arc furnace (EAF) is a furnace that heats charged material by means of an electric arc.

Metal-halide lamp

metal halide lampmetal halidemetal halide lighting
For example, fluorescent tubes, mercury, sodium, and metal-halide lamps are used for lighting; xenon arc lamps have been used for movie projectors.
A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).

Negative resistance

negative differential resistancecurrent filamentNegative differential conductivity
This negative resistance effect requires that some positive form of impedance (as an electrical ballast) be placed in the circuit to maintain a stable arc.
Devices with this type of negative resistance include the IMPATT diode, UJT, SCRs and other thyristors, electric arc, and gas discharge tubes.

Arc flash

arcarc flash protectionelectric arc
Formation of an intense electric arc, similar to a small-scale arc flash, is the foundation of exploding-bridgewire detonators.
An arc flash is the light and heat produced from an electric arc supplied with sufficient electrical energy to cause substantial damage, harm, fire, or injury.

Electric current

currentelectrical currentcurrents
The current through a normally nonconductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible light.
In the process, it forms a light emitting conductive path, such as a spark, arc or lightning.

Voltaic pile

dry pilechemical batteryVolta's pile
The first continuous arc was discovered independently in 1802 and described in 1803 as a "special fluid with electrical properties", by Vasily V. Petrov, a Russian scientist experimenting with a copper-zinc battery consisting of 4200 discs.
In 1802 Vasily Petrov used voltaic piles in the discovery and research of electric arc effects.

Electric light

light bulbelectric lightinglightbulb
A similar situation may occur when a lightbulb burns out and the fragments of the filament pull an electric arc between the leads inside the bulb, leading to overcurrent that trips the breakers.
The three main categories of electric lights are incandescent lamps, which produce light by a filament heated white-hot by electric current, gas-discharge lamps, which produce light by means of an electric arc through a gas, and LED lamps, which produce light by a flow of electrons across a band gap in a semiconductor.

Electric power transmission

transmissionpower linespower line
Undesired or unintended electric arcing can have detrimental effects on electric power transmission, distribution systems and electronic equipment.
Wind speeds as low as 23 kn can permit conductors to encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover and loss of supply.

Plasma cutting

plasma cutterplasmaPlasma arc cutting
Industrially, electric arcs are used for welding, plasma cutting, for electrical discharge machining, as an arc lamp in movie projectors, and followspots in stage lighting.
An electrical arc is then formed within the gas, between an electrode near or integrated into the gas nozzle and the work piece itself.

Fuse (electrical)

fusefuseselectrical fuse
The conductive channel then can facilitate formation of an electric arc. The ionized air has high electrical conductivity approaching that of metals, and it can conduct extremely high currents, causing a short circuit and tripping protective devices (fuses and circuit breakers).
If a 32 V fuse attempts to interrupt the 120 or 230 V source, an arc may result.

Circuit breaker

circuit breakersstandard circuit breaker current ratingbreaker
The conductive channel then can facilitate formation of an electric arc. The ionized air has high electrical conductivity approaching that of metals, and it can conduct extremely high currents, causing a short circuit and tripping protective devices (fuses and circuit breakers).
When electrical contacts open to interrupt a large current, there is a tendency for an arc to form between the opened contacts, which would allow the current to continue.

Vasily Vladimirovich Petrov

Vasily PetrovVasily V. Petrov
The first continuous arc was discovered independently in 1802 and described in 1803 as a "special fluid with electrical properties", by Vasily V. Petrov, a Russian scientist experimenting with a copper-zinc battery consisting of 4200 discs.
In 1802, Petrov discovered the electric arc effect, thanks to his building the world's largest and most powerful Voltaic pile at the time, which consisted of around 4,200 copper and zinc discs.

Snubber

inductive kickRC snubbersnubbed
Switching devices susceptible to arcing are normally designed to contain and extinguish an arc, and snubber circuits can supply a path for transient currents, preventing arcing.
Snubbers are also often used to prevent arcing across the contacts of relays and switches, or the electrical interference, or the welding of the contacts that can occur (see also arc suppression).

Arc converter

Poulsen arcarc transmitterArc transmitters
The arc converter used an electric arc to convert direct current electricity into radio frequency alternating current.