Electric battery

batterybatteriesbattery-poweredelectrical batteryelectric batterieswet cellbattery lifebattery powerelectrical batteriescapacity
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.wikipedia
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Flashlight

torchpenlighttorches
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
A typical flashlight consists of the light source mounted in a reflector, a transparent cover (sometimes combined with a lens) to protect the light source and reflector, a battery, and a switch.

Electrochemical cell

cellcellsbattery cell
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
A common example of a galvanic cell is a standard 1.5 volt cell meant for consumer use.

Electric power

powerelectrical powerelectrical
When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode.
Electric power is usually produced by electric generators, but can also be supplied by sources such as electric batteries.

Laptop

laptop computerlaptopsnotebook computer
Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and smartphones.
Laptops can be powered either from an internal battery or by an external power supply from an AC adapter.

Voltaic pile

dry pilechemical batteryvoltaic cell
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800.
The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.

Fuel

fuelsenergy-richchemical
Batteries have much lower specific energy (energy per unit mass) than common fuels such as gasoline.
Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors) or mechanical energy (such as flywheels, springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir).

Alessandro Volta

VoltaVolta, AlessandroAllessandro Volta
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta built and described the first electrochemical battery, the voltaic pile, in 1800.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and a pioneer of electricity and power, who is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane.

Dry cell

dry batterydry cell batteriesdry
Near the end of the nineteenth century, the invention of dry cell batteries, which replaced the liquid electrolyte with a paste, made portable electrical devices practical.
A dry cell is a type of electric battery, commonly used for portable electrical devices.

Hearing aid

hearing aidshearing instrumentshearing technology
Batteries come in many shapes and sizes, from miniature cells used to power hearing aids and wristwatches to small, thin cells used in smartphones, to large lead acid batteries used in cars and trucks, and at the largest extreme, huge battery banks the size of rooms that provide standby or emergency power for telephone exchanges and computer data centers.
The case contains the electronic amplifier components, controls and battery, while the earmold typically contains a miniature loudspeaker.

Electromotive force

EMFelectromotive force (EMF)
Each half-cell has an electromotive force (emf, measured in volts) relative to a standard.
Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal{E} and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.

Daniell cell

Daniel batteryDaniellDaniell galvanic cell
The Daniell cell, invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic Daniell, was the first practical source of electricity, becoming an industry standard and seeing widespread adoption as a power source for electrical telegraph networks.
The Daniell cell was a great improvement over the existing technology used in the early days of battery development.

Primary cell

primary batteryprimaryprimary batteries
Primary (single-use or "disposable") batteries are used once and discarded; the electrode materials are irreversibly changed during discharge.
A primary cell is a battery (a galvanic cell) that is designed to be used once and discarded, and not recharged with electricity and reused like a secondary cell (rechargeable battery).

Battery terminal

battery terminalsterminalsterminal
The electrical driving force or across the terminals of a cell is known as the terminal voltage (difference) and is measured in volts.
Battery terminals are the electrical contacts used to connect a load or charger to a single cell or multiple-cell battery.

John Frederic Daniell

John DaniellDaniellDaniell, John Frederic
The Daniell cell, invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic Daniell, was the first practical source of electricity, becoming an industry standard and seeing widespread adoption as a power source for electrical telegraph networks.
His name is best known for his invention of the Daniell cell, an element of an electric battery much better than voltaic cells.

Shelf life

shelf-lifeexpiration dateperishable food
The VRLA battery uses an immobilized sulfuric acid electrolyte, reducing the chance of leakage and extending shelf life.
It applies to cosmetics, foods and beverages, medical devices, medicines, explosives, pharmaceutical drugs, chemicals, tires, batteries and many other perishable items.

Fuel cell

fuel cellshydrogen fuel cellfuel-cell
Many types of electrochemical cells have been produced, with varying chemical processes and designs, including galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles.
Fuel cells are different from batteries in requiring a continuous source of fuel and oxygen (usually from air) to sustain the chemical reaction, whereas in a battery the chemical energy comes from chemicals already present in the battery.

Electric current

currentcurrentselectrical current
Secondary batteries can be recharged; that is, they can have their chemical reactions reversed by applying electric current to the cell. This regenerates the original chemical reactants, so they can be used, recharged, and used again multiple times.
Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type.

Rechargeable battery

rechargeablerechargeable batteriesstorage batteries
Secondary (rechargeable) batteries can be discharged and recharged multiple times using an applied electric current; the original composition of the electrodes can be restored by reverse current.
A rechargeable battery, storage battery, secondary cell, or accumulator is a type of electrical battery which can be charged, discharged into a load, and recharged many times, as opposed to a disposable or primary battery, which is supplied fully charged and discarded after use.

Anode

anodicanodes(anode)
When a battery is supplying electric power, its positive terminal is the cathode and its negative terminal is the anode.
In a battery or galvanic cell, the anode is the negative electrode from which electrons flow out towards the external part of the circuit.

Concentration cell

Concentration cellsNernst cell
A particular type of wet cell known as a concentration cell is important in understanding corrosion.
In battery technology, a concentration cell is a limited form of a galvanic cell that has two equivalent half-cells of the same composition differing only in concentrations.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelSir Michael Faraday
He thought that his cells were an inexhaustible source of energy, and that the associated corrosion effects at the electrodes were a mere nuisance, rather than an unavoidable consequence of their operation, as Michael Faraday showed in 1834.
In 1832, he completed a series of experiments aimed at investigating the fundamental nature of electricity; Faraday used "static", batteries, and "animal electricity" to produce the phenomena of electrostatic attraction, electrolysis, magnetism, etc. He concluded that, contrary to the scientific opinion of the time, the divisions between the various "kinds" of electricity were illusory.

Galvanic cell

voltaic cellgalvaniccells
Many types of electrochemical cells have been produced, with varying chemical processes and designs, including galvanic cells, electrolytic cells, fuel cells, flow cells and voltaic piles. A battery consists of some number of voltaic cells.
Volta was the inventor of the voltaic pile, the first electrical battery.

Weston cell

standard cellstandard cellsWeston
Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell.
The Weston cell is a wet-chemical cell that produces a highly stable voltage suitable as a laboratory standard for calibration of voltmeters.

Leclanché cell

a batteryLeclanche batteriesLeclanché
Other primary wet cells are the Leclanche cell, Grove cell, Bunsen cell, Chromic acid cell, Clark cell, and Weston cell.
The Leclanché cell is a battery invented and patented by the French scientist Georges Leclanché in 1866.

Power density

specific powerpower densitiespower
Cells of this type (in order of increasing power density and cost) include nickel–cadmium (NiCd), nickel–zinc (NiZn), nickel metal hydride (NiMH), and lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells.
In energy transformers including batteries, fuel cells, motors, etc., and also power supply units or similar, power density refers to a volume.