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### Electromagnetic field

**electromagnetic fieldselectromagneticEMF**

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a magnetic field produced by moving electrically charged objects.

### Proton

**protonsH + p**

There are two types of electric charge: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

A proton is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a positive electric charge of +1e elementary charge and a mass slightly less than that of a neutron.

### Electron

**electronse − electron mass**

There are two types of electric charge: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

### Classical electromagnetism

**classical electrodynamicselectrodynamicsclassical**

Early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that do not require consideration of quantum effects.

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

### Atom

**atomsatomic structureatomic**

In ordinary matter, negative charge is carried by electrons, and positive charge is carried by the protons in the nuclei of atoms.

The protons have a positive electric charge whereas the electrons have a negative electric charge.

### Electric field

**electricelectrostatic fieldelectrical field**

An electric charge has an electric field, and if the charge is moving it also generates a magnetic field.

An electric field surrounds an electric charge, and exerts force on other charges in the field, attracting or repelling them.

### Magnetic field

**magnetic fieldsmagneticmagnetic flux density**

An electric charge has an electric field, and if the charge is moving it also generates a magnetic field.

Magnetic fields surround and are created by magnetized material and by moving electric charges (electric currents) such as those used in electromagnets.

### Quark

**quarksantiquarkantiquarks**

Charge is quantized; it comes in integer multiples of individual small units called the elementary charge, e, about 1.602 coulombs, which is the smallest charge which can exist freely (particles called quarks have smaller charges, multiples of 1⁄3e, but they are only found in combination, and always combine to form particles with integer charge).

Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin.

### Elementary charge

**eelectron chargecharge**

Charge is quantized; it comes in integer multiples of individual small units called the elementary charge, e, about 1.602 coulombs, which is the smallest charge which can exist freely (particles called quarks have smaller charges, multiples of 1⁄3e, but they are only found in combination, and always combine to form particles with integer charge).

The elementary charge, usually denoted by e or sometimes q e, is the electric charge carried by a single proton or, equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge −1 e. This elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant.

### Quantum electrodynamics

**QEDquantum electrodynamicelectromagnetic**

The study of photon-mediated interactions among charged particles is called quantum electrodynamics.

QED mathematically describes all phenomena involving electrically charged particles interacting by means of exchange of photons and represents the quantum counterpart of classical electromagnetism giving a complete account of matter and light interaction.

### Coulomb

**CPicoCoulomBExacoulomb**

The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C) named after French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb.

The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.

### Photon

**photonslight quantaincident photon**

The study of photon-mediated interactions among charged particles is called quantum electrodynamics.

The intrinsic properties of particles, such as charge, mass, and spin, are determined by this gauge symmetry.

### Electrostatics

**electrostaticelectrostatic repulsionelectrostatic interactions**

Charge is the fundamental property of forms of matter that exhibit electrostatic attraction or repulsion in the presence of other matter.

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

### Ampere hour

**mAhAhampere-hour**

In electrical engineering, it is also common to use the ampere-hour (Ah); in physics and chemistry, it is common to use the elementary charge (e as a unit).

An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol: A⋅h or A h; sometimes also unofficially denoted as Ah) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3,600 coulombs.

### Physical property

**physical propertiesphysicalproperty**

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

### Matter

**corporealsubstancematerial**

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

They carry an electric charge of −1⁄3 e (down-type quarks) or +2⁄3 e (up-type quarks).

### Coulomb's law

**Coulomb forceelectrostatic forceCoulomb interaction**

Coulomb's law quantifies the electrostatic force between two particles by asserting that the force is proportional to the product of their charges, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is an experimental law of physics that quantifies the amount of force between two stationary, electrically charged particles.

### Robert Andrews Millikan

**Robert MillikanRobert A. MillikanMillikan**

Robert Millikan's oil drop experiment demonstrated this fact directly, and measured the elementary charge.

In 1909 Millikan began a series of experiments to determine the electric charge carried by a single electron.

### Faraday constant

**Faraday's constantfaradayFaraday (unit)**

Chemistry also uses the Faraday constant as the charge on a mole of electrons.

In physics and chemistry, this constant represents the magnitude of electric charge per mole of electrons.

### Force

**forcesattractiveelastic force**

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. Coulomb's law quantifies the electrostatic force between two particles by asserting that the force is proportional to the product of their charges, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The electromagnetic force acts between electric charges, and the gravitational force acts between masses.

### Ion

**cationanionions**

An ion is an atom (or group of atoms) that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net positive charge (cation), or that has gained one or more electrons, giving it a net negative charge (anion).

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a net electrical charge.

### Static electricity

**static chargestaticstatic electric**

When the net electric charge of an object is non-zero and motionless, the phenomenon is known as static electricity.

Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.

### Charles-Augustin de Coulomb

**CoulombCharles CoulombCharles Augustin de Coulomb**

The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C) named after French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb.

The SI unit of electric charge, the coulomb, was named in his honor in 1908.

### Charged particle

**charged particlescharged+**

Electric charge is a characteristic property of many subatomic particles.

In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.

### Conservation law

**conservation lawsconservedconservative**

Electric charge is a conserved property; the net charge of an isolated system, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge, cannot change.

For example, the amount of electric charge in a volume is never found to change without an electric current into or out of the volume that carries the difference in charge.