Electric utility

Electric power is transmitted on overhead lines like these, and also on underground high-voltage cables

Company in the electric power industry that engages in electricity generation and distribution of electricity for sale generally in a regulated market.

- Electric utility

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Electrical grid

Interconnected network for electricity delivery from producers to consumers.

General layout of electricity networks. Voltages and depictions of electrical lines are typical for Germany and other European systems.
Turbo generator
Diagram of an electric power system, generation system in red
500 kV Three-phase electric power Transmission Lines at Grand Coulee Dam; four circuits are shown; two additional circuits are obscured by trees on the right; the entire 7079 MW generation capacity of the dam is accommodated by these six circuits.
Network diagram of a high voltage transmission system, showing the interconnection between the different voltage levels. This diagram depicts the electrical structure of the network, rather than its physical geography.
Simplified electrical grid with energy storage
Simplified grid energy flow with and without idealized energy storage for the course of one day
A brownout near Tokyo Tower in Tokyo, Japan
Toronto during the Northeast blackout of 2003, which required black-starting of generating stations.
One conceptual plan of a super grid linking renewable sources across North Africa, the Middle East and Europe. (DESERTEC)
The synchronous grids of Europe
The two major and three minor interconnections of North America
Major WASGs around the world

Electric utility companies established central stations to take advantage of economies of scale and moved to centralized power generation, distribution, and system management.

Electricity generation

Process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.

Turbo generator
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Our World in Data notes that these costs are an effort to represent the global average. Which is driven by chinese forced labor practices in solar and wind,
   
 that manufactured, installed and exported the most globally,  
 bankrupting US and German solar industries, multiple times, over the time indicated.  In which, the manufacturing of panels were suggested to be 30% of solar costs in the largest production facility in the west, before labor costs were included, which they argue China do not pay, upon declaring its bankruptcy. While the 2 projects that drove average nuclear pricing upwards were 2 first of their kind AP1000s in the US/west. The organization recognises that the median cost of nuclear, the most exported and produced nuclear energy facility in the 2010s the 7 South Korean APR1400, remained "constant", including in export. No data on the 18 Chinese domestic nuclear, CPR1000 were included. LCOE is a measure of the average net present cost of electricity generation for a generating plant over its lifetime. As a metric, it remains controversial as the lifespan of units are not independent but manufacturer projections, not a demonstrated longevity.
Dynamos and engine installed at Edison General Electric Company, New York 1895
Wind turbines usually provide electrical generation in conjunction with other methods of producing power.
Large dams, such as Hoover Dam in the United States, can provide large amounts of hydroelectric power. It has an installed capacity of 2.07 GW.
A large generator with the rotor removed
Large dams such as Three Gorges Dam in China can provide large amounts of hydroelectric power; it has a 22.5 GW capability.
Energy flow of power plant
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For utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its delivery (transmission, distribution, etc.) to end users or its storage (using, for example, the pumped-storage method).

Public utility

Organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).

San Francisco Ferry Building at night

The term can refer to the set of services provided by various organizations that are used in everyday life by the public, such as: electricity generation, electricity retailing, electricity supplies, natural gas supplies, water supplies, sewage works, sewage systems and broadband internet services.

Electricity

Set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.

Lightning and urban lighting are some of the most dramatic effects of electricity
Thales, the earliest known researcher into electricity
Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research on electricity in the 18th century, as documented by Joseph Priestley (1767) History and Present Status of Electricity, with whom Franklin carried on extended correspondence.
Michael Faraday's discoveries formed the foundation of electric motor technology
Charge on a gold-leaf electroscope causes the leaves to visibly repel each other
An electric arc provides an energetic demonstration of electric current
Field lines emanating from a positive charge above a plane conductor
A pair of AA cells. The + sign indicates the polarity of the potential difference between the battery terminals.
Magnetic field circles around a current
The electric motor exploits an important effect of electromagnetism: a current through a magnetic field experiences a force at right angles to both the field and current
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta showing his "battery" to French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century.
A basic electric circuit. The voltage source V on the left drives a current I around the circuit, delivering electrical energy into the resistor R. From the resistor, the current returns to the source, completing the circuit.
Surface mount electronic components
Early 20th-century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station (photograph by Prokudin-Gorsky, 1905–1915).
Wind power is of increasing importance in many countries
The light bulb, an early application of electricity, operates by Joule heating: the passage of current through resistance generating heat
The electric eel, Electrophorus electricus

This requires electricity utilities to make careful predictions of their electrical loads, and maintain constant co-ordination with their power stations.

Monopoly

Market with the "absence of competition", creating a situation where a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular thing.

This 1879 anti-monopoly cartoon depicts powerful railroad barons controlling the entire rail system.
Surpluses and deadweight loss created by monopoly price setting
A 1902 anti-monopoly cartoon depicts the challenges that monopolies may create for workers

Common examples of utilities are electricity, natural gas, water, sewage, cable television, and telephone.

Economy of Malaysia

Third largest in Southeast Asia, in terms of GDP per Capita and the 34th largest in the world according to the International Monetary Fund.

Kuala Lumpur, national capital of Malaysia, and its largest city
Palm oil estate in Malaysia.
Malaysia Exports by Country (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic Complexity.
Rubber plantation in Malaysia
First Solar's factory in Kulim
The Proton Prevé, a car made by Malaysian car company Proton.
Penang Bridge
A Kedah-class warship, with another unit being built in the background
Headquarters of Maybank, Malaysia's largest bank
South Beach at Perhentian Besar
Tuaran Hospital in Sabah
Petronas petrol station in Thailand
Bakun Dam under construction in 2009
The North–South Expressway, the longest highway in Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur International Airport
Port Klang

Malaysia's energy infrastructure sector is largely dominated by Tenaga Nasional, the largest electric utility company in Southeast Asia, with over RM99.03 billion of assets.

Nebraska

State in the Midwestern region of the United States.

Nebraska in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, with the approximate area of the future state highlighted
Homesteaders in central Nebraska in 1888
A map of Nebraska
Nebraska National Forest
Köppen climate types of Nebraska, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Winter at Scotts Bluff National Monument
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Nebraska grain bins and elevator
A cropduster in agrarian Nebraska, far west of Omaha
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
The Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln
Football game at the University of Nebraska on September6, 2008

Nebraska is the only state in the US where all electric utilities are publicly owned.

Nuclear power

Use of nuclear reactions to produce electricity.

The Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant in Switzerland
The first light bulbs ever lit by electricity generated by nuclear power at EBR-1 at Argonne National Laboratory-West, December 20, 1951.
The launching ceremony of the USS Nautilus (SSN-571) January 1954. In 1958 it would become the first vessel to reach the North Pole.
The Calder Hall nuclear power station in the United Kingdom, the world's first commercial nuclear power station.
The town of Pripyat abandoned since 1986, with the Chernobyl plant and the Chernobyl New Safe Confinement arch in the distance.
Olkiluoto 3 under construction in 2009. It was the first EPR, a modernized PWR design, to start construction.
The nuclear fuel cycle begins when uranium is mined, enriched, and manufactured into nuclear fuel (1), which is delivered to a nuclear power plant. After use, the spent fuel is delivered to a reprocessing plant (2) or to a final repository (3). In nuclear reprocessing 95% of spent fuel can potentially be recycled to be returned to use in a power plant (4).
Proportions of the isotopes uranium-238 (blue) and uranium-235 (red) found in natural uranium and in enriched uranium for different applications. Light water reactors use 3-5% enriched uranium, while CANDU reactors work with natural uranium.
Typical composition of uranium dioxide fuel before and after approximately 3 years in the once-through nuclear fuel cycle of a LWR.
Activity of spent UOx fuel in comparison to the activity of natural uranium ore over time.
Dry cask storage vessels storing spent nuclear fuel assemblies
Nuclear waste flasks generated by the United States during the Cold War are stored underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The facility is seen as a potential demonstration for storing spent fuel from civilian reactors.
Most waste packaging, small-scale experimental fuel recycling chemistry and radiopharmaceutical refinement is conducted within remote-handled hot cells.
Nuclear fuel assemblies being inspected before entering a pressurized water reactor in the United States.
The Multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator (MMRTG), used in several space missions such as the Curiosity Mars rover
Death rates from air pollution and accidents related to energy production, measured in deaths in the past per terawatt hours (TWh)
Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the world's worst nuclear accident since 1986, 50,000 households were displaced after radiation leaked into the air, soil and sea. Radiation checks led to bans of some shipments of vegetables and fish.
Reactor decay heat as a fraction of full power after the reactor shutdown, using two different correlations. To remove the decay heat, reactors need cooling after the shutdown of the fission reactions. A loss of the ability to remove decay heat caused the Fukushima accident.
United States and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945–2006. The Megatons to Megawatts Program was the main driving force behind the sharp reduction in the quantity of nuclear weapons worldwide since the cold war ended.
The guided-missile cruiser USS Monterey (CG 61) receives fuel at sea (FAS) from the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73).
The Ikata Nuclear Power Plant, a pressurized water reactor that cools by utilizing a secondary coolant heat exchanger with a large body of water, an alternative cooling approach to large cooling towers.
Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of electricity supply technologies, median values calculated by IPCC
A comparison of prices over time for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources. Over the presented time, thousands of wind turbines and similar were built on assembly lines in mass production resulting in an economy of scale.
Our World in Data notes that these costs are an effort to represent the global average. Which is driven by chinese forced labor practices in solar and wind,
   
 that manufactured, installed and exported the most globally,  
 bankrupting US and German solar industries, multiple times, over the time indicated.  In which, the manufacturing of panels were suggested to be 30% of solar costs in the largest production facility in the west, before labor costs were included, which they argue China do not pay, upon declaring its bankruptcy. While the 2 projects that drove average nuclear pricing upwards were 2 first of their kind AP1000s in the US/west. The organization recognises that the median cost of nuclear, the most exported and produced nuclear energy facility in the 2010s the 7 South Korean APR1400, remained "constant", including in export. No data on the 18 Chinese domestic nuclear, CPR1000 were included. LCOE is a measure of the average net present cost of electricity generation for a generating plant over its lifetime. As a metric, it remains controversial as the lifespan of units are not independent but manufacturer projections, not a demonstrated longevity.
Anti-nuclear protest near nuclear waste disposal centre at Gorleben in northern Germany
Schematic of the ITER tokamak under construction in France.
Net electrical generation by source and growth from 1980. In terms of energy generated between 1980 and 2010, the contribution from fission grew the fastest.
Electricity production in France, showing the shift to nuclear power. {{legend|#D55E00|thermofossil}}{{legend|#0072B2|hydroelectric}}{{legend|#F0E442|nuclear}}{{legend|#009E73|Other renewables}}
The rate of new reactor constructions essentially halted in the late 1980s. Increased capacity factor in existing reactors was primarily responsible for the continuing increase in electrical energy produced during this period.
Electricity generation trends in the top five fission-energy producing countries (US EIA data)

As of 2010, all operating nuclear power plants have been developed by state-owned or regulated electric utility monopolies.

Puerto Rico

Caribbean island and unincorporated territory of the United States.

A 20th-century reconstruction of an 8th-century Taíno village, located at the spot where their ballpark and remains were discovered in 1975, in the aftermath of Hurricane Eloise.
Artist's depiction of Juan Ponce de León, Puerto Rico's first governor
Hendricksz 1625 attack on San Juan, Puerto Rico
Sugar haciendas, like the one portrayed above, ran a significant portion of the Puerto Rican economy in the late 19th century
The 16th-century Spanish colonial-era fort, Castillo San Felipe del Morro (background), in San Juan
The flag flown by Fidel Vélez and his men during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt
The Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
Monument commemorating the 1873 abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico, located in Ponce
Artistic rendering of the 1898 Bombardment of San Juan by American forces during the Spanish–American War
The first company of Puerto Ricans enlisted in the U.S. Army, within a year of the U.S. invasion
The first Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, appointed pursuant to the Foraker Act
Soldiers of the 65th Infantry training at Camp Santiago, Salinas, Puerto Rico (August 1941)
Painting of a bayonet charge by the U.S. 65th Infantry Regiment, made up of Puerto Rican troops, against a Chinese division during the Korean War
Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
Beach and coastline at Patillas, in southeast Puerto Rico
NOAA Bathymetry Image of Puerto Rico (2020)
Enlargeable, detailed map of Puerto Rico
Köppen climate types in Puerto Rico indicating that the island primarily has rainforest and monsoon climate types.
Common Coquí
Population density, Census 2000
Sunday mass, Stella Maris Parish, San Juan, Puerto Rico
The difference between the incumbent party, the PPD, and its opponent, the PNP, was a mere 0.6% in the last election. This difference is common as the political landscape experiences political cycles between both parties, with the PPD ruling all branches of government for 36 of the past 64 years. The PNP, on the other hand, has ruled both the executive and legislative branch concurrently for 16 years. The other 12 years experienced a divided government.
The Capitol of Puerto Rico, home of the Legislative Assembly in Puerto Rico
U.S. military installations and other federal lands in Puerto Rico (including the United States Virgin Islands) throughout the 20th century
ballistic missile submarine USS Maryland, Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, 1997
A map of Puerto Rico showing its 78 municipalities; the islands of Vieques and Culebra have their own municipal governments
Real GDP per capita development of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP) by economic sector
The 2012 Budget of the government of Puerto Rico
A map of the Jones Act merchant marine shipping routes for Puerto Rico
Flying into San Juan
Street-lined homes in Old San Juan
Eugenio María de Hostos
Cuchifritos (Carnitas) in New York
Plantain "arañitas" and "tostones rellenos"
San Juan 450th 1971 issue, depicting one of the [[:File:Lookout Station.JPG|garitas]] of El Morro
Puerto Rico Islanders fans at a soccer game
Puerto Rico interstate highways
The Tren Urbano system at Bayamón Station

The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA)—Spanish: Autoridad de Energía Eléctrica (AEE)—is an electric power company and the government-owned corporation of Puerto Rico responsible for electricity generation, power transmission, and power distribution in Puerto Rico.

Tax

Compulsory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed on a taxpayer by a governmental organization in order to fund government spending and various public expenditures (regional, local, or national), and tax compliance refers to policy actions and individual behaviour aimed at ensuring that taxpayers are paying the right amount of tax at the right time and securing the correct tax allowances and tax reliefs.

Total revenue from direct and indirect taxes given as share of GDP in 2017
Pieter Brueghel the Younger, The tax collector's office, 1640
Substitution effect and income effect with a taxation on y good.
Budget's constraint shift after an introduction of a lump sum tax or a general tax on consumption or a proportional income tax.
The Laffer curve. In this case, the critical point is at a tax rate of 70%. Revenue increases until this peak, then it starts decreasing.
General government revenue, in % of GDP, from social contributions. For this data, the variance of GDP per capita with purchasing power parity (PPP) is explained in 20% by social contributions revenue.
Egyptian peasants seized for non-payment of taxes. (Pyramid Age)
Public finance revenue from taxes in % of GDP. For this data, the variance of GDP per capita with purchasing power parity (PPP) is explained in 32% by tax revenue.
Diagram illustrating deadweight costs of taxes

Energy, water and waste management systems are also common public utilities.