Electric watch

electromechanical watchelectronic watchelectronic watchesTuning-fork watches
In horology the term electric watch is used for the first generation electrically-powered wristwatches which were first publicly displayed by both Elgin National Watch Company and LIP on the 19th of March 1952 with working laboratory examples in Chicago and Paris.wikipedia
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Watch

wristwatchwatchesdigital watch
In horology the term electric watch is used for the first generation electrically-powered wristwatches which were first publicly displayed by both Elgin National Watch Company and LIP on the 19th of March 1952 with working laboratory examples in Chicago and Paris.
Tuning-fork watches were rendered obsolete when electronic quartz watches were developed.

Tuning fork

tuning forkstuning-forkDiapasons
Their timekeeping element was either a traditional balance wheel or a tuning fork, driven electromagnetically by a solenoid powered by a battery. Tuning fork watches: Instead of a balance wheel, these watches used a tuning fork driven by a solenoid powered by a one-transistor oscillator circuit and no mechanical contacts. The tuning fork had an attached pawl and 'index wheel', which turned the gear train. The common frequencies used in watches were 300 Hz (ESA MOSABA cal. 9162, 9164 and 9210), 360 Hz (Bulova Accutron cal. 214 and 218), Slava Transistor, Tianjin 'Yinchabiao', Prim Elton, 480 Hz (Bulova Accutron cal. 2300) and 720 Hz (Omega Megasonic cal. 1220 and 1230). Omega F300Hz and Speedsonics series are common examples of ESA MOSABA based watches.
The Accutron, an electromechanical watch developed by Max Hetzel and manufactured by Bulova beginning in 1960, used a 360-hertz steel tuning fork as its timekeeper, powered by electromagnets attached to a battery-powered transistor oscillator circuit.

LIP (company)

LIPLip companyLIP conflict
Fixed coil system, contact controlled: watches with a piece of refined iron attached to the balance wheel, a fixed coil and mechanical contacts. In order to extend the life of the watch, some of these movements included a diode to minimize sparking on the contacts. Examples of this technology are Lip electronic R 27, LIP R 148, Elgin electronic 722, 725, 910 which were the smallest electronic movements ever made and Landeron (ESA - Ebauches S.A.) 4750.
The company launched the first electronic watch in 1952, called "Electronic" (considered 'electronic' rather than electric due to the presence of a diode).

Hamilton Watch Company

HamiltonBurenHamilton 500
Moving coil system, contact controlled: refers to watches with a balance wheel with integrated coil, fixed magnets and mechanical contacts. Examples of this technology are Hamilton 500 (first retail electric watch in 1957), Epperlein 100, Champion (Ruhla / UMF), Slava 114ChN and Timex M40.
In 1957, Hamilton introduced the world's first electric watch, the Hamilton Electric 500.

Quartz clock

quartz watchquartzquartz movement
They were superseded by quartz watches, which had greater accuracy and durability due to their lower parts count.
Electric watch

Bulova

Bulova Watch CompanyAccutronBulova Watch Co.
Tuning fork watches: Instead of a balance wheel, these watches used a tuning fork driven by a solenoid powered by a one-transistor oscillator circuit and no mechanical contacts. The tuning fork had an attached pawl and 'index wheel', which turned the gear train. The common frequencies used in watches were 300 Hz (ESA MOSABA cal. 9162, 9164 and 9210), 360 Hz (Bulova Accutron cal. 214 and 218), Slava Transistor, Tianjin 'Yinchabiao', Prim Elton, 480 Hz (Bulova Accutron cal. 2300) and 720 Hz (Omega Megasonic cal. 1220 and 1230). Omega F300Hz and Speedsonics series are common examples of ESA MOSABA based watches.
The tuning fork was powered by a one-transistor electronic oscillator circuit, so the Accutron qualifies as the first "electronic watch".

Horology

horologisthorologicalhorologists
In horology the term electric watch is used for the first generation electrically-powered wristwatches which were first publicly displayed by both Elgin National Watch Company and LIP on the 19th of March 1952 with working laboratory examples in Chicago and Paris.

Elgin National Watch Company

ElginElgin Watch CompanyElgin Watches
In horology the term electric watch is used for the first generation electrically-powered wristwatches which were first publicly displayed by both Elgin National Watch Company and LIP on the 19th of March 1952 with working laboratory examples in Chicago and Paris.

Seiko

Hattori SeikoHattori Seiko Co.lorus
Hamilton would be the first to produce and retail an electric watch beginning in 1957, before the commercial introduction of the quartz wristwatch in 1969 by Seiko with the Astron. Transistorized watches with balance: had a balance wheel, a transistor acting as a switch and no mechanical contacts. Usually the coil was located in the base plate and the magnets are on the balance wheel. Watches using this technology include Timex M87/Laco 882, Citizen X-8 series and Seiko Electronic 31A. Another common example is ESA Dynotron cal. 9150.

Astron (wristwatch)

Astron35 SQ AstronElectronic Quartz Wristwatch
Hamilton would be the first to produce and retail an electric watch beginning in 1957, before the commercial introduction of the quartz wristwatch in 1969 by Seiko with the Astron.

Balance wheel

foliotcompensation balanceauxiliary temperature compensation
Their timekeeping element was either a traditional balance wheel or a tuning fork, driven electromagnetically by a solenoid powered by a battery. Transistorized watches with balance: had a balance wheel, a transistor acting as a switch and no mechanical contacts. Usually the coil was located in the base plate and the magnets are on the balance wheel. Watches using this technology include Timex M87/Laco 882, Citizen X-8 series and Seiko Electronic 31A. Another common example is ESA Dynotron cal. 9150.

Electromagnetism

electromagneticelectromagnetic forceelectromagnetics
Their timekeeping element was either a traditional balance wheel or a tuning fork, driven electromagnetically by a solenoid powered by a battery.

Solenoid

solenoidselectromechanical solenoidmagnetizing current loop
Their timekeeping element was either a traditional balance wheel or a tuning fork, driven electromagnetically by a solenoid powered by a battery. Tuning fork watches: Instead of a balance wheel, these watches used a tuning fork driven by a solenoid powered by a one-transistor oscillator circuit and no mechanical contacts. The tuning fork had an attached pawl and 'index wheel', which turned the gear train. The common frequencies used in watches were 300 Hz (ESA MOSABA cal. 9162, 9164 and 9210), 360 Hz (Bulova Accutron cal. 214 and 218), Slava Transistor, Tianjin 'Yinchabiao', Prim Elton, 480 Hz (Bulova Accutron cal. 2300) and 720 Hz (Omega Megasonic cal. 1220 and 1230). Omega F300Hz and Speedsonics series are common examples of ESA MOSABA based watches.

Button cell

coin cellLR44CR2032
Their timekeeping element was either a traditional balance wheel or a tuning fork, driven electromagnetically by a solenoid powered by a battery.

Wheel train

going traingear trainkeyless winding
The hands were driven mechanically through a wheel train.

Automatic quartz

automatic power generating quartz watchkinetic-powered quartz watches
Recent automatic quartz watches, which combine mechanical technology with quartz timekeeping, are not included in this classification.

Switch

switchestoggle switchelectrical switch
A weak point in early balance wheel electric watches was the switch contacts on the balance wheel, which turned the solenoid on briefly to provide the impulse to keep the wheel oscillating.

Electrical contacts

electrical contactcontactcontacts
A weak point in early balance wheel electric watches was the switch contacts on the balance wheel, which turned the solenoid on briefly to provide the impulse to keep the wheel oscillating.

Electromagnetic coil

coilwindingcoils
Fixed coil system, contact controlled: watches with a piece of refined iron attached to the balance wheel, a fixed coil and mechanical contacts. In order to extend the life of the watch, some of these movements included a diode to minimize sparking on the contacts. Examples of this technology are Lip electronic R 27, LIP R 148, Elgin electronic 722, 725, 910 which were the smallest electronic movements ever made and Landeron (ESA - Ebauches S.A.) 4750. Moving coil system, contact controlled: refers to watches with a balance wheel with integrated coil, fixed magnets and mechanical contacts. Examples of this technology are Hamilton 500 (first retail electric watch in 1957), Epperlein 100, Champion (Ruhla / UMF), Slava 114ChN and Timex M40.

Magnet

permanent magnetmagnetspermanent magnets
Moving coil system, contact controlled: refers to watches with a balance wheel with integrated coil, fixed magnets and mechanical contacts. Examples of this technology are Hamilton 500 (first retail electric watch in 1957), Epperlein 100, Champion (Ruhla / UMF), Slava 114ChN and Timex M40.

Timex Group USA

TimexTimex CorporationWaterbury Clock Company
Moving coil system, contact controlled: refers to watches with a balance wheel with integrated coil, fixed magnets and mechanical contacts. Examples of this technology are Hamilton 500 (first retail electric watch in 1957), Epperlein 100, Champion (Ruhla / UMF), Slava 114ChN and Timex M40.

Diode

semiconductor diodediodessilicon diode
Fixed coil system, contact controlled: watches with a piece of refined iron attached to the balance wheel, a fixed coil and mechanical contacts. In order to extend the life of the watch, some of these movements included a diode to minimize sparking on the contacts. Examples of this technology are Lip electronic R 27, LIP R 148, Elgin electronic 722, 725, 910 which were the smallest electronic movements ever made and Landeron (ESA - Ebauches S.A.) 4750.

ETA SA

ETAETA movementsETA S.A.
Fixed coil system, contact controlled: watches with a piece of refined iron attached to the balance wheel, a fixed coil and mechanical contacts. In order to extend the life of the watch, some of these movements included a diode to minimize sparking on the contacts. Examples of this technology are Lip electronic R 27, LIP R 148, Elgin electronic 722, 725, 910 which were the smallest electronic movements ever made and Landeron (ESA - Ebauches S.A.) 4750.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizeddiscrete transistor
Transistorized watches with balance: had a balance wheel, a transistor acting as a switch and no mechanical contacts. Usually the coil was located in the base plate and the magnets are on the balance wheel. Watches using this technology include Timex M87/Laco 882, Citizen X-8 series and Seiko Electronic 31A. Another common example is ESA Dynotron cal. 9150.

Citizen Watch

CitizenCitizen WatchesCitizen Watch Co.
Transistorized watches with balance: had a balance wheel, a transistor acting as a switch and no mechanical contacts. Usually the coil was located in the base plate and the magnets are on the balance wheel. Watches using this technology include Timex M87/Laco 882, Citizen X-8 series and Seiko Electronic 31A. Another common example is ESA Dynotron cal. 9150.