Electrical connector

Schematic symbols for male and female connectors
This rear panel of an integrated amplifier features a variety of electrical connectors
Connectors on the back of a 2018 computer
NMEA 2000 cabling using M12 connectors
Pogo pin connectors
Typical crown spring plug and its female socket
Male phone plug
A wire and connector being crimped together with a crimping tool
Binding posts on a bi-amplified loudspeaker
Terminal blocks of various types
Ring style wire-end crimp connectors
Blade connectors (lower half of photo). Ring and spade terminals (upper half). Bullet terminals, male and female (right-center, with blue wires)

Electrical circuit are electrically connected if an electric current can run between them through an electrical conductor.

- Electrical connector
Schematic symbols for male and female connectors

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This mains power plug travel adapter allows British plugs to be connected to American or Australian sockets.

Adapter

Device that converts attributes of one electrical device or system to those of an otherwise incompatible device or system.

Device that converts attributes of one electrical device or system to those of an otherwise incompatible device or system.

This mains power plug travel adapter allows British plugs to be connected to American or Australian sockets.
A "power cube"-type AC adapter

Some modify power or signal attributes, while others merely adapt the physical form of one connector to another.

Comparison of USB connector plugs, excluding USB-C type plugs

USB hardware

[[File:Usb connectors.JPG|thumb|upright=1.5|Various USB connectors along a centimeter ruler for scale. From left to right:1. Micro-B plug

[[File:Usb connectors.JPG|thumb|upright=1.5|Various USB connectors along a centimeter ruler for scale. From left to right:1. Micro-B plug

Comparison of USB connector plugs, excluding USB-C type plugs
USB extension cable, plug on the left, receptacle (nonstandard, receptacles normally not allowed on cables) on the right
Standard, Mini-, and Micro-USB plugs shown end-on, not to scale. Light areas represent cavities. The plugs are pictured with USB logo to the top.
Micro-B SuperSpeed plug
A yellow charge-only USB port on a front panel USB 3.0 switch with card reader
A blue Standard-A USB connector on a Sagemcom F@ST 3864OP ADSL modem router without USB 3.0 contacts fitted
Pin configuration of type-A and type-B plugs viewed end-on
Mini-A (left) and Mini-B (right) plugs
USB 3.0 Micro-B SuperSpeed plug
USB 3.0 B type plug
The USB-C plug
USB cable with a USB-C plug and a USB-C port on a laptop
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Worst-case voltage drop topology of a USB 3.x host to device chain, at steady state. Note that under transient conditions the supply at the device can momentarily drop from 4.0 V to 3.67 V.
The USB Type-C Charging logo (USB4 20Gbps port)
Power rule of USB Power Delivery Revision 3.0, Version 1.2
The Certified USB Fast Charger logo for USB Type-C charging ports
A yellow USB port denoting sleep-and-charge

The Universal Serial Bus Micro-USB Cables and Connectors Specification details the mechanical characteristics of Micro-A plugs, Micro-AB receptacles (which accept both Micro-A and Micro-B plugs), Double-Sided Micro USB, and Micro-B plugs and receptacles, along with a Standard-A receptacle to a Micro-A plug adapter.

6x1 male pin header (one row)

Pin header

6x1 male pin header (one row)
6x1 female socket header (one row)
Red jumper on a 4x1 male pin header
13x2 shrouded header with notch key, a white triangle denotes pin 1
5x2 shrouded header with one pin missing for USB connector expansion from an ATX motherboard

A pin header (or simply header) is a form of electrical connector.

A 6.35 mm (1⁄4 inch) two-contact phone plug used for various signals including electric guitar, loudspeaker, microphone and line-level audio. The tip is insulated from its adjacent sleeve and body.

Phone connector (audio)

Family of electrical connectors typically used for analog audio signals.

Family of electrical connectors typically used for analog audio signals.

A 6.35 mm (1⁄4 inch) two-contact phone plug used for various signals including electric guitar, loudspeaker, microphone and line-level audio. The tip is insulated from its adjacent sleeve and body.
The three parts: tip, ring and sleeve
A pair of phone connectors: A plug (right) is inserted in a socket (jack, left). Note the flat open contact spring parallel to and inside the tip contact spring. When the plug is removed, those contacts close to connect a circuit; such a connection is said to be "normal". Inserting the plug connects its tip to one part of that circuit instead.
Phone connectors:
<ul>
<li>2.5 mm (1⁄10 in) mono (TS)</li>
<li>3.5 mm (1⁄8 in) mono (TS)</li>
<li>3.5 mm (1⁄8 in) stereo (TRS)</li>
<li>6.35 mm (1⁄4 in) stereo (TRS)</li>
</ul>
A dual 310 patch cable, two-pin phone plug
Aviation plug type U-174/U or Nexus TP120, commonly used on military aircraft and civil helicopters
Old-style male tip-sleeve connectors. The leftmost plug has three conductors; the others have two. At the top is a three-conductor panel jack.
Modern profile 2-conductor male 1⁄4 in TS connectors
A 3.5 mm phone connector
A 3.5 mm 4-conductor TRRS phone connector
A 3.5 mm 5-conductor TRRRS phone connector
3.5 mm jacks for microphone, audio out, and line-level audio in
A 3.5 mm plug for computer audio
A 3.5 mm headphone socket (TRS) on a computer
Different length 3.5 mm TRRS connectors
Stereo devices which use "plug-in power": the electret capsules are wired in this way.
All iPhone models from the first generation to the 6S and SE (first generation) use a four-conductor (TRRS) phone connector (center) for a wired headset.
Miniature phone plugs and jacks. All are 3.5 mm except the gold-plated plug, which is 2.5 mm. One of the 3.5 mm jacks is two-conductor and the others are three conductor. In this collection the tan-colored jacks have normally-closed switches.
Examples of jack configurations, oriented so the plug 'enters' from the right. The most common circuit configurations are the simple mono and stereo jacks (A and B); however there are a great number of variants manufactured. 
<ol type="A">
<li>A two-conductor TS phone connector. The connection to the sleeve is the rectangle towards the right, and the connection to the tip is the line with the notch. Wiring connections are illustrated as white circles.</li>
<li>A three-conductor TRS phone connector. The upper connector is the tip, as it is farther away from the sleeve. The sleeve is shown connected directly to the chassis, a very common configuration. This is the typical configuration for a balanced connection. Some jacks have metal mounting connections (which would make this connection) and some have plastic, to isolate the sleeve from the chassis, and provide a separate sleeve connection point, as in A.</li>
<li>This three-conductor jack has two isolated SPDT switches. They are activated by a plug going into the jack, which disconnects one throw and connects the other. The white arrowheads indicate a mechanical connection, while the black arrowheads indicate an electrical connection. This would be useful for a device that turns on when a plug is inserted, and off otherwise, with the power routed through the switches.</li>
<li>This three-conductor jack has two normally closed switches connected to the contacts themselves. This would be useful for a patch point, for instance, or for allowing another signal to feed the line until a plug is inserted. The switches open when a plug is inserted. A common use for this style of connector is a stereo headphone jack that shuts off the default output (speakers) when the connector is plugged in.</li>
</ol>
<ol><li>Sleeve: usually ground</li><li>Ring: Right-hand channel for stereo signals, negative polarity for balanced mono signals, power supply for power-using mono signal sources</li>
<li>Tip: Left-hand channel for stereo signals, positive polarity for balanced mono signals, signal line for unbalanced mono signals</li><li>Insulating rings</li>
</ol>
The Sony Walkman NW-ZX300 has a balanced 4.4 mm output alongside a 3.5 mm unbalanced

In the US, a stationary (more fixed) electrical connector is called a jack.

Gold can be drawn into a monatomic wire, and then stretched more before it breaks.

Gold

Chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

Chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

Gold can be drawn into a monatomic wire, and then stretched more before it breaks.
A gold nugget of 5 mm in size can be hammered into a gold foil of about 0.5 m2 in area.
Different colors of Ag–Au–Cu alloys
Gold(III) chloride solution in water
Schematic of a NE (left) to SW (right) cross-section through the 2.020-billion-year-old Vredefort impact crater in South Africa and how it distorted the contemporary geological structures. The present erosion level is shown. Johannesburg is located where the Witwatersrand Basin (the yellow layer) is exposed at the "present surface" line, just inside the crater rim, on the left. Not to scale.
Oldest golden artifacts in the world (4600 BC - 4200 BC) from Varna necropolis, Bulgaria - grave offerings on exposition in Varna Museum.
An Indian tribute-bearer at Apadana, from the Achaemenid satrapy of Hindush, carrying gold on a yoke, circa 500 BC.
The Muisca raft, between circa 600-1600 AD. The figure refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado. The zipa used to cover his body in gold dust, and from his raft, he offered treasures to the Guatavita goddess in the middle of the sacred lake. This old Muisca tradition became the origin of the legend of El Dorado. This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, Colombia.
Ancient golden Kritonios Crown, funerary or marriage material, 370–360 BC. From a grave in Armento, Basilicata
Gold coin of Eucratides I (171–145 BC), one of the Hellenistic rulers of ancient Ai-Khanoum. This is the largest known gold coin minted in antiquity (169.2 g; 58 mm).
An early mention of gold in the Beowulf
Gold crafts from the Philippines prior to Western contact.
The Agusan image, depicting a deity from northeast Mindanao.
Time trend of gold production
A miner underground at Pumsaint gold mine, Wales; c. 1938.
Grasberg mine, Indonesia is the world's largest gold mine.
Relative sizes of an 860 kg block of gold ore and the 30 g of gold that can be extracted from it, Toi gold mine, Japan.
Gold prospecting at the Ivalo River in the Finnish Lapland in 1898
Gold Nuggets found in Arizona.
Two golden 20 kr coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which was based on a gold standard. The coin to the left is Swedish and the right one is Danish.
Gold price history in 1960–2020.
Moche gold necklace depicting feline heads. Larco Museum Collection, Lima, Peru.
A 21.5k yellow gold pendant watch so-called "Boule de Genève" (Geneva ball), ca. 1890.
Cake with gold decoration served at the Amstel Hotel, Amsterdam
Mirror for the James Webb Space Telescope coated in gold to reflect infrared light
Kamakshi Amman Temple with golden roof, Kanchipuram.
Iron pyrite or "fool's gold"
Minoan jewellery; 2300&ndash;2100 BC; various sizes; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Pair of Sumerian earrings with cuneiform inscriptions; 2093&ndash;2046 BC; Sulaymaniyah Museum (Sulaymaniyah, Iraq)
Ancient Egyptian statuette of Amun; 945&ndash;715 BC; gold; {{cvt|175x47|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Ancient Egyptian signet ring; 664&ndash;525 BC; gold; diameter: {{cvt|30|x|34|mm}}; British Museum (London)
Ancient Greek stater; 323&ndash;315 BC; {{cvt|18|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Etruscan funerary wreath; 4th&ndash;3rd century BC; length: {{cvt|333|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Roman aureus of Hadrian; 134&ndash;138 AD; 7.4 g; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Quimbaya lime container; 5th&ndash;9th century; gold; height: {{cvt|230|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Byzantine scyphate; 1059&ndash;1067; diameter: {{cvt|25|mm}}; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, USA)
Pre-Columbian pendant with two bat-head warriors who carry spears; 11th&ndash;16th century; gold; overall: {{cvt|76.2|mm}}; from the Chiriqui Province (Panama); Metropolitan Museum of Art
English Neoclassical box; 1741; overall: {{cvt|44|x|116|x|92|mm}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art
French Rococo glass bottle mounted in gold; circa 1775; overall: {{cvt|70|x|29|mm}}; Cleveland Museum of Art

Gold's high malleability, ductility, resistance to corrosion and most other chemical reactions, and conductivity of electricity have led to its continued use in corrosion-resistant electrical connectors in all types of computerized devices (its chief industrial use).

A pinout diagram of a very common 555 timer integrated circuit showing its 8 pins (numbered 1-8) and their corresponding functions ("ground", "trigger", "output", etc.)

Pinout

A pinout diagram of a very common 555 timer integrated circuit showing its 8 pins (numbered 1-8) and their corresponding functions ("ground", "trigger", "output", etc.)
PS/2 connector pinout
4017 pinout

In electronics, a pinout (sometimes written "pin-out") is a cross-reference between the contacts, or pins, of an electrical connector or electronic component, and their functions.

RTL8201 Ethernet PHY chip

Physical layer

First and lowest layer; The layer most closely associated with the physical connection between devices.

First and lowest layer; The layer most closely associated with the physical connection between devices.

RTL8201 Ethernet PHY chip
Texas Instruments DP83825 - 3mm x 3mm 3.3V PHY chip
Micrel KS8721CL - 3.3V Single Power Supply 10/100BASE-TX/FX MII Physical Layer Transceiver

The shapes and properties of the electrical connectors, the frequencies to broadcast on, the line code to use and similar low-level parameters, are specified by the physical layer.

Electrical cable diagram

Electrical cable

Assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.

Assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.

Electrical cable diagram
Flexible mains cable with three 2.5 mm2 solid copper conductors
6 inch (15 cm) outside diameter, oil-cooled cables, traversing the Grand Coulee Dam throughout. An example of a heavy cable for power transmission.
Fire test in Sweden, showing fire rapidly spreading through the burning of cable insulation, a phenomenon of great importance for cables used in some installations.
500,000 circular mil (254 mm2) single conductor power cable
Coaxial cable
Twisted pair cabling
A 250 V, 16 A electrical cable on a reel

One or more electrical cables and their corresponding connectors may be formed into a cable assembly, which is not necessarily suitable for connecting two devices but can be a partial product (e.g. to be soldered onto a printed circuit board with a connector mounted to the housing).

Schematic symbols for male and female connector pins

Gender of connectors and fasteners

Schematic symbols for male and female connector pins
Universal Etymological English Dictionary mentioning male and female screws in 1731
Female nut threaded onto a male bolt
Lego toy brick connections are male on top, and female underneath
Left: A male threaded pipe, Right: a female threaded elbow
Electrical power outlets are female for safety.
Common 5.5×2.5 mm coaxial power connectors. Power is provided by the female plug on the right to the male jack on the left; the exposed conductors are not hazardous due to the low voltage. See text for further explanation.
Paired "knuckle" type hermaphroditic mechanical couplers for railcars (viewed from above)
Arduino "shield" boards connected via stackable bus connectors
A panel-mounted IEC 60320 C14 male connector jack designed to accept AC line power
A male 50 ohm BNC connector plug. Three circular projections (including the central pin) interlock with two rings of the female jack.
Triaxial BNC connector, a male plug
Twinaxial cable connector, a male plug
Coaxial Type N connector, a male plug
Female (left) and male weatherproof plugs for photovoltaic solar panels
This HDMI plug is conventionally assigned to male gender
Toslink male plug optical fiber connector

In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, each half of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners is conventionally assigned the designation male or female.

XLR3 cable connectors, female on left and male on right

XLR connector

XLR3 cable connectors, female on left and male on right
Variety of male and female XLR connectors with different numbers of pins
XLR-LNE three-pin male and female connectors, originally used for mains power connections. The connecting pins in the male connector are recessed and the sockets in the female connectors are shrouded for safety. This example is a panel socket, used as a power input from the male plug, though they were also used in the opposite configuration.
Left to right: Cannon XLR3-12C (line), Switchcraft X3F (line), Neutrik NC3MP panel, Neutrik NC3FP panel
XLR and 0.25 inch TRS phone connector combo jack.
XLR and Mini XLR connectors
Male and female XLR4 panel connectors
Female XLR5 panel connector
Female XLR6 panel connector

The XLR connector is a type of electrical connector primarily found on professional audio, video, and stage lighting equipment.