A report on Electrical engineering

The discoveries of Michael Faraday formed the foundation of electric motor technology.
Guglielmo Marconi, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission
A replica of the first working transistor, a point-contact transistor
Metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), the basic building block of modern electronics
The top of a power pole
Satellite dishes are a crucial component in the analysis of satellite information.
Control systems play a critical role in spaceflight.
Electronic components
Microprocessor
A Bayer filter on a CCD requires signal processing to get a red, green, and blue value at each pixel.
Flight instruments provide pilots with the tools to control aircraft analytically.
Supercomputers are used in fields as diverse as computational biology and geographic information systems.
The Bird VIP Infant ventilator
Oscilloscope
An example circuit diagram, which is useful in circuit design and troubleshooting.
Belgian electrical engineers inspecting the rotor of a 40,000 kilowatt turbine of the General Electric Company in New York City
The IEEE corporate office is on the 17th floor of 3 Park Avenue in New York City
Satellite communications is typical of what electrical engineers work on.
The Shadow robot hand system
A laser bouncing down an acrylic rod, illustrating the total internal reflection of light in a multi-mode optical fiber.
Radome at the Misawa Air Base Misawa Security Operations Center, Misawa, Japan

Engineering discipline concerned with the study, design, and application of equipment, devices, and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

- Electrical engineering

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The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom

Engineering

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Use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings.

Use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings.

The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
The steam engine, the major driver in the Industrial Revolution, underscores the importance of engineering in modern history. This beam engine is on display in the Technical University of Madrid.
Relief map of the Citadel of Lille, designed in 1668 by Vauban, the foremost military engineer of his age.
The Ancient Romans built aqueducts to bring a steady supply of clean and fresh water to cities and towns in the empire.
A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore, ca. 1556
The application of the steam engine allowed coke to be substituted for charcoal in iron making, lowering the cost of iron, which provided engineers with a new material for building bridges. This bridge was made of cast iron, which was soon displaced by less brittle wrought iron as a structural material
Jumbo Jet
Offshore platform, Gulf of Mexico
The solar furnace at Odeillo in the Pyrénées-Orientales in France can reach temperatures up to 3500 C
Hoover Dam
Electric motor
Design of a turbine requires collaboration of engineers from many fields, as the system involves mechanical, electro-magnetic and chemical processes. The blades, rotor and stator as well as the steam cycle all need to be carefully designed and optimized.
A drawing for a booster engine for steam locomotives. Engineering is applied to design, with emphasis on function and the utilization of mathematics and science.
A computer simulation of high velocity air flow around a Space Shuttle orbiter during re-entry. Solutions to the flow require modelling of the combined effects of fluid flow and the heat equations.
Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks
Robotic Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
Radar, GPS, lidar, ... are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge)
Engineers, scientists and technicians at work on target positioner inside National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber
The International Space Station is used to conduct science experiments in space
A 3 tesla clinical MRI scanner.
Genetically engineered mice expressing green fluorescent protein, which glows green under blue light. The central mouse is wild-type.
Leonardo da Vinci, seen here in a self-portrait, has been described as the epitome of the artist/engineer. He is also known for his studies on human anatomy and physiology.

The foundations of electrical engineering in the 1800s included the experiments of Alessandro Volta, Michael Faraday, Georg Ohm and others and the invention of the electric telegraph in 1816 and the electric motor in 1872.

This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.

Computer engineering

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This computer motherboard used in a personal computer is the result of computer engineering efforts.
The Difference Engine, the first mechanical computer.
ENIAC, the first electronic computer.
Source code written in the C programming language.
Windows 10, an example of an operating system.
An example of a computer CPU.
An example of a humanoid robot.
Examples of devices that use embedded systems.

Computer engineering (CoE or CpE) is a branch of electrical engineering that integrates several fields of computer science and electronic engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.

Printed circuit board

Electronic engineering

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Printed circuit board

Electronic engineering is a sub-discipline of electrical engineering which emerged in the early 20th century and is distinguished by the additional use of active components such as semiconductor devices to amplify and control electric current flow.

Portrait by Napoleon Sarony, 1890s

Nikola Tesla

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Portrait by Napoleon Sarony, 1890s
Rebuilt, Tesla's house (parish hall) in Smiljan, now in Croatia, region of Lika, where he was born, and the rebuilt church, where his father served. During the Yugoslav Wars, several of the buildings were severely damaged by fire. They were restored and reopened in 2006.
Tesla's baptismal record, 28 June 1856
Tesla's father, Milutin, was an Orthodox priest in the village of Smiljan.
Tesla aged 23, c. 1879
Edison Machine Works on Goerck Street, New York. Tesla found the change from cosmopolitan Europe to working at this shop, located amongst the tenements on Manhattan's lower east side, a "painful surprise".
Drawing from, illustrating the principle of Tesla's alternating current induction motor
Tesla's AC dynamo-electric machine (AC electric generator) in an 1888
Mark Twain in Tesla's South Fifth Avenue laboratory, 1894
Tesla demonstrating wireless lighting by "electrostatic induction" during an 1891 lecture at Columbia College via two long Geissler tubes (similar to neon tubes) in his hands
X-ray Tesla took of his hand
In 1898, Tesla demonstrated a radio-controlled boat which he hoped to sell as a guided torpedo to navies around the world.
Tesla sitting in front of a spiral coil used in his wireless power experiments at his East Houston St. laboratory
Tesla's Colorado Springs laboratory
A multiple exposure picture of Tesla sitting next to his "magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts. The 7 m long arcs were not part of the normal operation, but only produced for effect by rapidly cycling the power switch.
Tesla's Wardenclyffe plant on Long Island in 1904. From this facility, Tesla hoped to demonstrate wireless transmission of electrical energy across the Atlantic.
Tesla's bladeless turbine design
Second banquet meeting of the Institute of Radio Engineers, 23 April 1915. Tesla is seen standing in the center.
Tesla on Time magazine commemorating his 75th birthday
Newspaper representation of the thought camera Tesla described at his 1933 birthday party
Room 3327 of the Hotel New Yorker, where Tesla died
Gilded urn with Tesla's ashes, in his favorite geometric object, a sphere (Nikola Tesla Museum, Belgrade)
Tesla c. 1896
Tesla c. undefined 1885
Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, Serbia
Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport was named after the scientist in 2006.
This Nikola Tesla statue in Zagreb, Croatia was made by Ivan Meštrović in 1954. It was located at the Ruđer Bošković Institute before it was moved to the Tesla street in the city center in 2006.
Nikola Tesla Corner in New York City
Nikola Tesla statue in Niagara Falls, Ontario
X-ray Tesla took of his hand

Nikola Tesla (, ; 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

The Shadow robot hand system

Robotics

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Interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering.

Interdisciplinary branch of computer science and engineering.

The Shadow robot hand system
Mechanical construction
Electrical aspect
A level of programming
The InSight lander with solar panels deployed in a cleanroom
A robotic leg powered by air muscles
KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry
Puma, one of the first industrial robots
Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney Brooks
Lefty, first checker playing robot
Segway in the Robot museum in Nagoya
TALON military robots used by the United States Army
Two robot snakes. Left one has 64 motors (with 2 degrees of freedom per segment), the right one 10.
Capuchin, a climbing robot
Robotic Fish: iSplash-II
The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos
Radar, GPS, and lidar, are all combined to provide proper navigation and obstacle avoidance (vehicle developed for 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge)
Kismet can produce a range of facial expressions.
Puppet Magnus, a robot-manipulated marionette with complex control systems.
Experimental planar robot arm and sensor-based, open-architecture robot controller developed at Sunderland University, UK in 2000
RuBot II can manually resolve Rubik's cubes.
TOPIO, a humanoid robot, played ping pong at Tokyo IREX 2009.
Two Jet Propulsion Laboratory engineers stand with three vehicles, providing a size comparison of three generations of Mars rovers. Front and center is the flight spare for the first Mars rover, Sojourner, which landed on Mars in 1997 as part of the Mars Pathfinder Project. On the left is a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) test vehicle that is a working sibling to Spirit and Opportunity, which landed on Mars in 2004. On the right is a test rover for the Mars Science Laboratory, which landed Curiosity on Mars in 2012. Sojourner is 65 cm long. The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) are 1.6 m long. Curiosity on the right is 3 m long.
The SCORBOT-ER 4u educational robot
A robot technician builds small all-terrain robots. (Courtesy: MobileRobots, Inc.)

Robotics integrates fields of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, information engineering, mechatronics, electronics, bioengineering, computer engineering, control engineering, software engineering, mathematics, etc.

Lightning and urban lighting are some of the most dramatic effects of electricity

Electricity

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Set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.

Set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.

Lightning and urban lighting are some of the most dramatic effects of electricity
Thales, the earliest known researcher into electricity
Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research on electricity in the 18th century, as documented by Joseph Priestley (1767) History and Present Status of Electricity, with whom Franklin carried on extended correspondence.
Michael Faraday's discoveries formed the foundation of electric motor technology
Charge on a gold-leaf electroscope causes the leaves to visibly repel each other
An electric arc provides an energetic demonstration of electric current
Field lines emanating from a positive charge above a plane conductor
A pair of AA cells. The + sign indicates the polarity of the potential difference between the battery terminals.
Magnetic field circles around a current
The electric motor exploits an important effect of electromagnetism: a current through a magnetic field experiences a force at right angles to both the field and current
Italian physicist Alessandro Volta showing his "battery" to French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century.
A basic electric circuit. The voltage source V on the left drives a current I around the circuit, delivering electrical energy into the resistor R. From the resistor, the current returns to the source, completing the circuit.
Surface mount electronic components
Early 20th-century alternator made in Budapest, Hungary, in the power generating hall of a hydroelectric station (photograph by Prokudin-Gorsky, 1905–1915).
Wind power is of increasing importance in many countries
The light bulb, an early application of electricity, operates by Joule heating: the passage of current through resistance generating heat
The electric eel, Electrophorus electricus

The theory of electromagnetism was developed in the 19th century, and by the end of that century electricity was being put to industrial and residential use by electrical engineers.

IEEE Human logo

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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IEEE Human logo

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a 501(c)(3) professional association for electronic engineering and electrical engineering (and associated disciplines) with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

Aurora at Alaska showing light created by charged particles and magnetism, fundamental concepts to electromagnetism study

Electromagnetism

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Branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

Branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

Aurora at Alaska showing light created by charged particles and magnetism, fundamental concepts to electromagnetism study
Hans Christian Ørsted
André-Marie Ampère
James Clerk Maxwell
Representation of the electric field vector of a wave of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation.
Magnetic reconnection in the solar plasma gives rise to solar flares, a complex magnetohydrodynamical phenomenon.

Electromagnetism is very widely used in modern technology, and electromagnetic theory is the basis of electric power engineering and electronics including digital technology.

Ottó Bláthy

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Prototypes of the world's first high-efficiency transformers, 1885 (Széchenyi István Memorial Exhibition Nagycenk)
Bláthy's Wattmeter (1889)
Ottó Bláthy in the armature of a Ganz turbo generator (1904)

Ottó Titusz Bláthy (11 August 1860 – 26 September 1939) was a Hungarian electrical engineer.

Guglielmo Marconi

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Marconi's first transmitter incorporating a monopole antenna. It consisted of an elevated copper sheet (top) connected to a Righi spark gap (left) powered by an induction coil (center) with a telegraph key (right) to switch it on and off to spell out text messages in Morse code.
British Post Office engineers inspect Marconi's radio equipment during a demonstration on Flat Holm Island, 13 May 1897. The transmitter is at centre, the coherer receiver below it, and the pole supporting the wire antenna is visible at top.
Plaque on the outside of the BT Centre commemorates Marconi's first public transmission of wireless signals.
SS Ponce entering New York Harbor 1899, by Milton J. Burns
Marconi watching associates raising the kite (a "Levitor" by B.F.S. Baden-Powell ) used to lift the antenna at St. John's, Newfoundland, December 1901
Magnetic detector by Marconi used during the experimental campaign aboard a ship in summer 1902, exhibited at the Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci of Milan.
Marconi demonstrating apparatus he used in his first long-distance radio transmissions in the 1890s. The transmitter is at right, the receiver with paper tape recorder at left.
Marconi caricatured by Leslie Ward for Vanity Fair, 1905
Villa Marconi, with Marconi's tomb in foreground.
American electrical engineer Alfred Norton Goldsmith and Marconi on 26 June 1922.
Guglielmo and Beatrice Marconi c. 1910
Memorial plaque in the Basilica Santa Croce, Florence. Italy
Guglielmo Marconi Memorial in Washington, D.C.
Bronze statue of Guglielmo Marconi, sculpted by Saleppichi Giancarlo erected 1975 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Italian lira banknote, 1990 issue

Guglielmo Giovanni Maria Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his creation of a practical radio wave-based wireless telegraph system.