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### Electronic component

**componentselectronic componentscomponent**

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

These leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator).

### Capacitor

**capacitorscapacitivecondenser**

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit.

### Resistor

**Resistor controlresistorsResistance**

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment.

### Switch

**switchestoggle switchelectrical switch**

In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

### Electrical element

**circuit elementelementelements**

Electrical elements are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, used in the analysis of electrical networks.

### Electronics

**electronicelectronic deviceelectronic equipment**

A network that contains active electronic components is known as an electronic circuit.

Electronics deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, optoelectronics, and sensors, associated passive electrical components, and interconnection technologies.

### Network analysis (electrical circuits)

**circuit theorynetwork analysiscircuit analysis**

Analysis of resistive circuits is less complicated than analysis of circuits containing capacitors and inductors.

A resistive circuit is a circuit containing only resistors, ideal current sources, and ideal voltage sources.

### Lumped element model

**lumpedlumped elementlumped elements**

This design philosophy is called the lumped element model and networks so designed are called lumped element circuits.

It is useful in electrical systems (including electronics), mechanical multibody systems, heat transfer, acoustics, etc.

### Superposition theorem

**superpositionsuperposedsuperposition theorem for electric circuits**

A network is linear if its signals obey the principle of superposition; otherwise it is non-linear.

The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear system the response (voltage or current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, where all the other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances.

### Distributed element model

**distributed elementsdistributed elementdistributed**

A new design model is needed for such cases called the distributed element model.

In electrical engineering, the distributed element model or transmission line model of electrical circuits assumes that the attributes of the circuit (resistance, capacitance, and inductance) are distributed continuously throughout the material of the circuit.

### Inductance

**mutual inductanceinductivemutual induction**

If multiple electric circuits are located close to each other, the magnetic field of one can pass through the other; in this case the circuits are said to be inductively coupled.

### Dependent source

**controlled voltage/current sourcedependent generator**

Dependent sources depend upon a particular element of the circuit for delivering the power or voltage or current depending upon the type of source it is.

In the theory of electrical networks, a dependent source is a voltage source or a current source whose value depends on a voltage or current elsewhere in the network.

### Kirchhoff's circuit laws

**Kirchhoff's lawsKirchhoff's current lawKirchhoff's voltage law**

Kirchhoff's current law: The sum of all currents entering a node is equal to the sum of all currents leaving the node.

Kirchhoff's laws are two equalities that deal with the current and potential difference (commonly known as voltage) in the lumped element model of electrical circuits.

### Direct current

**DCdirect-currentD.C.**

They are thus more easily analyzed, using powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.

The DC solution of an electric circuit is the solution where all voltages and currents are constant.

### Norton's theorem

**NortonNorton equivalentNorton equivalent circuit**

Norton's theorem: Any network of voltage or current sources and resistors is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source in parallel with a single resistor.

Any linear electrical network with voltage and current sources and only resistances can be replaced at terminals A–B by an equivalent current source I no in parallel connection with an equivalent resistance R no.

### Ground (electricity)

**groundgroundinggrounded**

Ground (electricity)

In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.

### Electrical impedance

**impedanceimpedancescomplex impedance**

Impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

### PLECS

Software such as the PLECS interface to Simulink uses piecewise-linear approximation of the equations governing the elements of a circuit.

PLECS (Piecewise Linear Electrical Circuit Simulation) is a software tool for system-level simulations of electrical circuits developed by Plexim.

### Laplace transform

**Laplaces-domainℒ**

They are thus more easily analyzed, using powerful frequency domain methods such as Laplace transforms, to determine DC response, AC response, and transient response.

In the theory of electrical circuits, the current flow in a capacitor is proportional to the capacitance and rate of change in the electrical potential (in SI units).

### Short circuit

**short-circuitshortelectrical short**

Short circuit

A short circuit (sometimes abbreviated to short or s/c) is an electrical circuit that allows a current to travel along an unintended path with no or a very low electrical impedance.

### Circuit diagram

**schematicselectronic schematiccircuit schematic**

Circuit diagram

A circuit diagram (electrical diagram, elementary diagram, electronic schematic) is a graphical representation of an electrical circuit.

### Voltage drop

**potential dropdrop the voltagedropped**

* Voltage drop

Voltage drop describes how the energy supplied by a voltage source is reduced as electric current moves through the passive elements (elements that do not supply voltage) of an electrical circuit.

### Thévenin's theorem

**ThéveninThévenin equivalentThévenin resistance**

Thévenin's theorem: Any network of voltage or current sources and resistors is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source in series with a single resistor.

Any linear electrical network containing only voltage sources, current sources and resistances can be replaced at terminals A-B by an equivalent combination of a voltage source V th in a series connection with a resistance R th.

### Electrical load

**loadloadsdemand**

Load

If an electric circuit has an output port, a pair of terminals that produces an electrical signal, the circuit connected to this terminal (or its input impedance) is the load.

### Network analyzer (electrical)

**network analyzervector network analyzernetwork analyzers**

Network analyzer (electrical)

A network analyzer is an instrument that measures the network parameters of electrical networks.