Electrical telegraph

electric telegraphtelegraphtelegraph linecablegramcableelectromagnetic telegraphtelegraphyelectrical telegraphyinvention of the telegraphMorse telegraph
An electrical telegraph was a point-to-point text messaging system, used from the 1840s until better systems became widespread.wikipedia
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It was the first electrical telecommunications system, the most widely used of a number of early messaging systems called telegraphs, devised to send text messages more rapidly than written messages could be sent.
20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication usually involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph, telephone, and teleprinter, networks, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, and communications satellites.

Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph

Cooke and WheatstoneCooke & Wheatstone five-needle telegraphCooke and Wheatstone telegraph five needle code
The first commercial system, and the most widely used needle telegraph, was the Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, invented in 1837.
The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph was an early electrical telegraph system dating from the 1830s invented by English inventor William Fothergill Cooke and English scientist Charles Wheatstone.

Samuel Morse

Samuel F. B. MorseSamuel F.B. MorseMorse
The archetype of this category was the Morse system, invented by Samuel Morse in 1838, using a single wire.
After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs.

Needle telegraph

needle displaysneedle instrument
The first was needle telegraphs in which a needle pointer is made to move electromagnetically with a pulse of electric current from a battery or dynamo down the telegraph line.
A needle telegraph is an electrical telegraph that uses indicating needles moved electromagnetically as its means of displaying messages.

Optical telegraph

semaphore linesemaphoreshutter telegraph chain
In the 1840s the electrical telegraph superseded optical telegraph systems (except in France), becoming the standard way to send urgent messages.
Semaphore lines were a precursor of the electrical telegraph, which would replace them half a century later, and would also be cheaper, faster, and more private.

Morse code

MorseInternational Morse CodeMorse-code
At the sending station, an operator would tap on a switch called a telegraph key, spelling out text messages in Morse code.
Following the discovery of electromagnetism by Hans Christian Ørsted in 1820 and the invention of the electromagnet by William Sturgeon in 1824, there were developments in electromagnetic telegraphy in Europe and America.

Electric battery

batterybatteriesBattery (electricity)
The first was needle telegraphs in which a needle pointer is made to move electromagnetically with a pulse of electric current from a battery or dynamo down the telegraph line.
The Daniell cell, invented in 1836 by British chemist John Frederic Daniell, was the first practical source of electricity, becoming an industry standard and seeing widespread adoption as a power source for electrical telegraph networks.

Telegraph sounder

The second category was armature systems in which the pulse activates a telegraph sounder which makes a click.
A telegraph sounder is an antique electromechanical device used as a receiver on electrical telegraph lines during the 19th century.

Telegraph key

Morse keykeyfist
At the sending station, an operator would tap on a switch called a telegraph key, spelling out text messages in Morse code.
Keys are used in all forms of electrical telegraph systems, such as landline or "wire" electrical telegraphy, and "wireless", or radio telegraphy.

Georges-Louis Le Sage

Georges LesageGeorges-Louis LeSage
In 1774, Georges-Louis Le Sage realised an early electric telegraph.
Georges-Louis Le Sage (13 June 1724 – 9 November 1803) was a Genevan physicist and is most known for his theory of gravitation, for his invention of an electric telegraph and his anticipation of the kinetic theory of gases.

André-Marie Ampère

AmpèreAmpereAmpère, André-Marie
In 1821, André-Marie Ampère suggested that telegraphy could be done by a system of galvanometers, with one wire per galvanometer to indicate each letter, and said he had experimented successfully with such a system.
He is also the inventor of numerous applications, such as the solenoid (a term coined by him) and the electrical telegraph.


relayslatching relayelectric relay
In 1835, Joseph Henry and Edward Davy invented the critical electrical relay.
Relays were first used in long-distance telegraph circuits as signal repeaters: they refresh the signal coming in from one circuit by transmitting it on another circuit.

Francis Ronalds

Sir Francis RonaldsRonalds
The first working telegraph was built by the English inventor Francis Ronalds in 1816 and used static electricity.
He was knighted for creating the first working electric telegraph over a substantial distance.

Joseph Henry

Henry, JosephHenryJoseph Henry Papers Project
In 1835, Joseph Henry and Edward Davy invented the critical electrical relay. Joseph Henry improved it in 1828 by placing several windings of insulated wire around the bar, creating a much more powerful electromagnet which could operate a telegraph through the high resistance of long telegraph wires.
Henry's work on the electromagnetic relay was the basis of the practical electrical telegraph, invented by Samuel F. B. Morse and Sir Charles Wheatstone, separately.

Baltimore–Washington telegraph line

Baltimore-Washington telegraph lineWhat hath God wroughtBaltimore to Washington
The first telegram in the United States was sent by Morse on 11 January 1838, across 2 mi of wire at Speedwell Ironworks near Morristown, New Jersey, although it was only later, in 1844, that he sent the message "WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT" over the 44 mi from the Capitol in Washington to the old Mt. Clare Depot in Baltimore.
The Baltimore–Washington telegraph line was the first long-distance telegraph system set up to run overland in the United States.

Utility pole

telephone poletelegraph poletelephone poles
An electrical telegraph consisted of two or more geographically separated stations (often called telegraph offices) connected by wires, usually supported overhead on utility poles.
Cooke was the driving force in establishing the electrical telegraph on a commercial basis.

Electrostatic generator

electrostatic machineinfluence machinefriction machine
This became a source of a low-voltage current that could be used to produce more distinct effects, and which was far less limited than the momentary discharge of an electrostatic machine, which with Leyden jars were the only previously known man-made sources of electricity.
Francis Ronalds automated the generation process in 1816 by adapting a pendulum bob as one of the plates, driven by clockwork or a steam engine – he created the device to power his electric telegraph.

Timeline of North American telegraphy

explosive growth in the 1840squickly deployed in the two decades following the first demonstrationrapid expansion of the telegraph in North America
In the United States, the Morse/Vail telegraph was quickly deployed in the two decades following the first demonstration in 1844.
The timeline of North American telegraphy is a chronology of notable events in the history of electric telegraphy in the United States and Canada, including the rapid spread of telegraphic communications starting from 1844 and completion of the first transcontinental telegraph line in 1861.

Electric Telegraph Company

Electric and International Telegraph CompanyInternational Telegraph CompanyCS ''Monarch
The Electric Telegraph Company, the world's first public telegraphy company was formed in 1845 by financier John Lewis Ricardo and Cooke.
The equipment used was the Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph, an electrical telegraph developed a few years earlier in collaboration with Charles Wheatstone.

Pavel Schilling

Baron SchillingBaron Pavel L'vovitch SchillingP.L. Schilling
The telegraph invented by Baron Schilling von Canstatt in 1832 had a transmitting device which consisted of a keyboard with 16 black-and-white keys.
Baron Pavel L'vovitch Schilling, also known as Paul Schilling (5 April 1786, Reval (now, Tallinn), Russian empire – St. Petersburg, Russia, 25 July 1837 ), was a diplomat of Baltic German origin employed in the service of Russia in Germany, and who built a pioneering electrical telegraph.

Electrical telegraphy in the United Kingdom

British Telegraph CompanyBritish Electric Telegraph CompanyUnited Kingdom Telegraph Company
Electrical telegraphy sends these messages over conducting wires, often incorporating a telegram service (the delivery of telegraph messages by messenger from the telegraph office).

Foy-Breguet telegraph

Foy-Breguet electrical telegraph
The Foy-Breguet telegraph was eventually adopted.
The Foy-Breguet telegraph was an electrical telegraph of the needle telegraph type invented by Louis-François-Clement Breguet and Alphonse Foy in 1842.

British and Irish Magnetic Telegraph Company

English and Irish Magnetic Telegraph CompanyMagnetic Telegraph CompanySand battery
Between them, they dominated the market until the telegraph was nationalised in 1870.

Telegram style

telegraphesetelegraphic stylea very compressed style
A successful expedient to reduce the cost per message was the development of telegraphese.
It originated in the telegraph age when telecommunication consisted only of short messages transmitted by hand over the telegraph wire.

American Morse code

American Morse
The US, however, continued to use American Morse code internally for some time, hence international messages required retransmission in both directions.
American Morse Code — also known as Railroad Morse—is the latter-day name for the original version of the Morse Code developed in the mid-1840s, by Samuel Morse and Alfred Vail for their electric telegraph.