Cooke and Wheatstone's five-needle telegraph from 1837
A single needle telegraph (1903)
Morse Telegraph
Schweigger multiplier
Hughes telegraph, an early (1855) teleprinter built by Siemens and Halske
A Schilling needle instrument
Sömmering's electric telegraph in 1809
Cooke and Wheatstone five-needle telegraph
Revolving alphanumeric dial created by Francis Ronalds as part of his electric telegraph (1816)
Henley-Foster telegraph instrument
Pavel Schilling, an early pioneer of electrical telegraphy
Diagram of alphabet used in a 5-needle Cooke and Wheatstone Telegraph, indicating the letter G
Morse key and sounder
GWR Cooke and Wheatstone double needle telegraph instrument
A magneto-powered Wheatstone A. B. C. telegraph with the horizontal "communicator" dial, the inclined "indicator" dial and crank handle for the magneto that generated the electrical signal.
Professor Morse sending the message – WHAT HATH GOD WROUGHT on 24 May 1844
Foy–Breguet telegraph displaying the letter "Q"
Wheatstone automated telegraph network equipment
A Baudot keyboard, 1884
Phelps' Electro-motor Printing Telegraph from circa 1880, the last and most advanced telegraphy mechanism designed by George May Phelps
A Creed Model 7 teleprinter in 1930
Teletype Model 33 ASR (Automatic Send and Receive)
Major telegraph lines in 1891
The Eastern Telegraph Company network in 1901
German Lorenz SZ42 teleprinter attachment (left) and Lorenz military teleprinter (right) at The National Museum of Computing on Bletchley Park, England

A needle telegraph is an electrical telegraph that uses indicating needles moved electromagnetically as its means of displaying messages.

- Needle telegraph

This was built around the signalling block system with signal boxes along the line communicating with their neighbouring boxes by telegraphic sounding of single-stroke bells and three-position needle telegraph instruments.

- Electrical telegraph
Cooke and Wheatstone's five-needle telegraph from 1837

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Pavel Lvovitch Schilling. Portrait by Karl Bryullov, 1828

Pavel Schilling

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Russian military officer and diplomat of Baltic German origin.

Russian military officer and diplomat of Baltic German origin.

Pavel Lvovitch Schilling. Portrait by Karl Bryullov, 1828
Samuel Thomas von Sömmerring
Badge of the Golden Weapon for Bravery worn with civil suit
Schilling's tomb at Smolenskoye Lutheran Cemetery
The Manchurian alphabet, printed with Schilling's lead sorts, 1824
The Tibetan Prayerbook prepared for publication by Schilling. Leipzig, 1835
A needle instrument from Schilling's telegraph, 1828. Overall height of the enclosure was around 300 mm, the magnetic needle is 57 mm long
The Adamini Building, where Schilling lived from 1832, was large enough to house a hundred-meter telegraph line
Proposed Kronstadt-Peterhof line according to Schilling (in red) and the approved all-submerged route (blue)
Test rig for naval mines employing the Schilling fuse, as demonstrated by Schilder on March 21, 1833. The target structure A-C, made of wood and ice blocks and placed on thick ice D, emulates a wooden frigate.
A 1982 six kopek postage stamp from the USSR commemorating the 150th anniversary of Pavel Schilling's telegraph invention

Schilling is best known for his pioneering work in electrical telegraphy, which he undertook at his own initiative.

Schilling's design was a needle telegraph using magnetised needles suspended by a thread over a current-carrying coil.

Cooke and Wheatstone's two-needle telegraph as used on the Great Western Railway

Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph

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Cooke and Wheatstone's two-needle telegraph as used on the Great Western Railway
Wheatstone (left) and Cooke (right)
Cooke and Wheatstone's five-needle, six-wire telegraph
Cooke and Wheatstone 5-wire telegraph cable in a wooden spacer
John Tawell at his trial
Five-needle telegraph receiving the letter G.
Circuit diagram of the five-needle telegraph transmitting the character A
Original codes for the one-, two-, and five-needle telegraphs. A stroke leaning to the left indicates a needle rotated anti-clockwise, that is, with the top pointing to the left. A stroke leaning to the right indicates a needle pointing to the right.  For multiple stroke codes, the first movement is in the direction of the short stroke.  For example, in the one-needle code, E is left-right-left, L is right-left-right-left, and U is left-left-right.

The Cooke and Wheatstone telegraph was an early electrical telegraph system dating from the 1830s invented by English inventor William Fothergill Cooke and English scientist Charles Wheatstone.

It was a form of needle telegraph, and the first telegraph system to be put into commercial service.

Foy–Breguet telegraph displaying the letter "Q"

Foy–Breguet telegraph

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Foy–Breguet telegraph displaying the letter "Q"
The Foy–Breguet telegraph code
An operator's manipulator showing the crank handle and notches
Telegraphy over the England–France submarine cable. Foy–Breguet telegraph in the foreground and Cooke–Wheatstone telegraph in the background.

The Foy–Breguet telegraph, also called the French telegraph, was an electrical telegraph of the needle telegraph type developed by Louis-François-Clement Breguet and Alphonse Foy in the 1840s for use in France.