# Electricity

electricalelectricelectricallypowerelectrical powerelectrifiedelectric powerelectrical systemselectrical systemelectrical energy
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.wikipedia
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### Electrical engineering

electrical engineerelectricalElectrical and Electronics Engineering
Even then, practical applications for electricity were few, and it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use.
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

### Electric heating

electric heaterElectricelectric heaters
Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others.
An electric heater is an electrical device that converts an electric current into heat.

### Electrical injury

electric shockelectrocutionelectrocuted
Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by electric catfish and electric rays, and knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects.
Electric shock occurs upon contact of a (human) body part with any source of electricity that causes a sufficient magnitude of current to pass through the victim's flesh, viscera or hair.

### Coulomb's law

Coulomb forceelectrostatic forceCoulomb interaction
The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but later science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity.

### Electronics

electronicelectronic equipmentelectronic device
Direct current, as produced by example from a battery and required by most electronic devices, is a unidirectional flow from the positive part of a circuit to the negative.
Electrical and electromechanical science and technology deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage, and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms (using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors, and other passive components).

### Electric light

light bulbelectric lightinglightbulb
Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an almost limitless set of applications which include transport, heating, lighting, communications, and computation.

### William Gilbert (physician)

William GilbertGilbert, WilliamWilliam Gilbert (astronomer)
Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber.
He is regarded by some as the father of electrical engineering or electricity and magnetism.

### Alessandro Volta

VoltaVolta, AlessandroA. Volta
Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines previously used.
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian physicist, chemist, and pioneer of electricity and power who is credited as the inventor of the electric battery and the discoverer of methane.

### Electrostatic generator

electrostatic machineinfluence machinefriction machine
Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines previously used.
By the end of the 17th century, researchers had developed practical means of generating electricity by friction, but the development of electrostatic machines did not begin in earnest until the 18th century, when they became fundamental instruments in the studies about the new science of electricity.

### Hans Christian Ørsted

ØrstedHans Christian OerstedH.C. Ørsted
The recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric and magnetic phenomena, is due to Hans Christian Ørsted and André-Marie Ampère in 1819–1820.
Hans Christian Ørsted (, ; often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 1777 – 9 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.

Michael Faraday invented the electric motor in 1821, and Georg Ohm mathematically analysed the electrical circuit in 1827.
His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became practical for use in technology.

### Physics

physicistphysicalphysicists
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.
Electricity and magnetism have been studied as a single branch of physics since the intimate connection between them was discovered in the early 19th century; an electric current gives rise to a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic field induces an electric current.

### Solar panel

solar panelssolar modulephotovoltaic panels
The photoelectric effect is also employed in photocells such as can be found in solar panels and this is frequently used to make electricity commercially.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate direct current electricity.

### Oliver Heaviside

HeavisideHeaviside, OliverHeaviside|Heaviside's operators
Through such people as Alexander Graham Bell, Ottó Bláthy, Thomas Edison, Galileo Ferraris, Oliver Heaviside, Ányos Jedlik, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Charles Algernon Parsons, Werner von Siemens, Joseph Swan, Reginald Fessenden, Nikola Tesla and George Westinghouse, electricity turned from a scientific curiosity into an essential tool for modern life.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

### Magnetism

magneticmagneticsmagnetic properties
In early days, electricity was considered as being unrelated to magnetism.
An understanding of the relationship between electricity and magnetism began in 1819 with work by Hans Christian Ørsted, a professor at the University of Copenhagen, who discovered by the accidental twitching of a compass needle near a wire that an electric current could create a magnetic field.

### Benjamin Franklin

Ben FranklinFranklinFranklin, Benjamin
Later in the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work.
Franklin started exploring the phenomenon of electricity in 1746 when he saw some of Archibald Spencer's lectures using static electricity for illustrations.

### Electron

electronse − electron mass
Current flow can be understood in two forms: as negatively charged electrons, and as positively charged electron deficiencies called holes.
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.

### Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
In 1887, Heinrich Hertz discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily.
The word was coined by William Whewell at the request of the scientist Michael Faraday from two Greek words: elektron, meaning amber (from which the word electricity is derived), and hodos, a way.

### Electrometer

electrometerscapillary electrometerelectrograph
Charge can be measured by a number of means, an early instrument being the gold-leaf electroscope, which although still in use for classroom demonstrations, has been superseded by the electronic electrometer.
An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference.

### Second Industrial Revolution

Industrial RevolutionTechnological RevolutionGerman industrialism
The rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution.
The work of Michael Faraday and others was pivotal in laying the foundations of the modern scientific understanding of electricity.

### Amber

Burmese amberamber fossilresinite
Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers.
Known to the Iranians by the Pahlavi compound word kah-ruba (from kah "straw" plus rubay "attract, snatch", referring to its electrical properties), which entered Arabic as kahraba' or kahraba (which later became the Arabic word for electricity, كهرباء kahrabā ), it too was called amber in Europe (Old French and Middle English ambre).

### Voltaic pile

dry pilechemical batteryVolta's pile
Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines previously used.
Volta demonstrated in 1794 that when two metals and brine-soaked cloth or cardboard are arranged in a circuit they produce an electric current.

### Electromagnetism

electromagneticelectrodynamicselectromagnetic force
The recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric and magnetic phenomena, is due to Hans Christian Ørsted and André-Marie Ampère in 1819–1820. Later on, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism.
Electromagnetic phenomena are defined in terms of the electromagnetic force, sometimes called the Lorentz force, which includes both electricity and magnetism as different manifestations of the same phenomenon.

### De Magnete

De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete TellureOn the Loadstone and Magnetic BodiesDe magnete, magneticisque corporibus
Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber.
Amber is called elektron in Greek, and electrum in Latin, so Gilbert decided to refer to the phenomenon by the adjective electricus, giving rise to the modern terms "electric" and "electricity".

### Electric charge

chargeelectrical chargecharged
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge.
In 1839, Michael Faraday showed that the apparent division between static electricity, current electricity, and bioelectricity was incorrect, and all were a consequence of the behavior of a single kind of electricity appearing in opposite polarities.