Electrochemistry

electrochemicalelectrochemistelectrochemical reactionelectrochemicallyelectrochemical reductionelectrochemicalsgalvanic coupleelectrochemical reactionselectrochemistsElectrolytic
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.wikipedia
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Nerve

nervesinnervationinnervated
In his essay Galvani concluded that animal tissue contained a here-to-fore neglected innate, vital force, which he termed "animal electricity," which activated nerves and muscles spanned by metal probes.
A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses called action potentials that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs or, in the case of sensory nerves, from the periphery back to the central nervous system.

Physical chemistry

physical chemistphysicochemicalphysical
Electrochemistry is the branch of physical chemistry that studies the relationship between electricity, as a measurable and quantitative phenomenon, and identifiable chemical change, with either electricity considered an outcome of a particular chemical change or vice versa.
4) Surface science and electrochemistry of cell membranes.

Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry DavyDavySir Humphry Davy, Bt
Sir Humphry Davy's work with electrolysis led to the conclusion that the production of electricity in simple electrolytic cells resulted from chemical action and that chemical combination occurred between substances of opposite charge.
He also studied the forces involved in these separations, inventing the new field of electrochemistry.

Alessandro Volta

VoltaVolta, AlessandroAllessandro Volta
Galvani's scientific colleagues generally accepted his views, but Alessandro Volta rejected the idea of an "animal electric fluid," replying that the frog's legs responded to differences in metal temper, composition, and bulk.
Volta's invention sparked a great amount of scientific excitement and led others to conduct similar experiments which eventually led to the development of the field of electrochemistry.

Michael Faraday

FaradayFaraday, MichaelSir Michael Faraday
In 1832, Michael Faraday's experiments led him to state his two laws of electrochemistry.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was a British scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

Polarization (electrochemistry)

polarizationpolarizingelectrical polarization
In 1836, John Daniell invented a primary cell which solved the problem of polarization by eliminating hydrogen gas generation at the positive electrode.
In electrochemistry, polarization is a collective term for certain mechanical side-effects (of an electrochemical process) by which isolating barriers develop at the interface between electrode and electrolyte.

Zinc–carbon battery

zinc-carbon batteryzinc-carbon batterieszinc-carbon
In 1868, Georges Leclanché patented a new cell which eventually became the forerunner to the world's first widely used battery, the zinc carbon cell.
A zinc–carbon battery is a dry cell primary battery that delivers about 1.5 volts of direct current from the electrochemical reaction between zinc and manganese dioxide.

Nernst equation

NernstNernst potential
He constructed an equation, known as Nernst equation, which related the voltage of a cell to its properties.
In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of an electrochemical reaction (half-cell or full cell reaction) to the standard electrode potential, temperature, and activities (often approximated by concentrations) of the chemical species undergoing reduction and oxidation.

Walther Nernst

NernstWalther Hermann NernstHermann Walther Nernst
Walther Hermann Nernst developed the theory of the electromotive force of the voltaic cell in 1888.
Walther Hermann Nernst, (25 June 1864 – 18 November 1941) was a German chemist known for his work in thermodynamics, physical chemistry, electrochemistry, and solid state physics.

Electric current

currentcurrentselectrical current
When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction.
In a common lead-acid electrochemical cell, electric currents are composed of positive hydrogen ions (protons) flowing in one direction, and negative sulfate ions flowing in the other.

Electrochemical Society

American Electrochemical SocietyThe Electrochemical SocietyECS Digital Library
In 1902, The Electrochemical Society (ECS) was founded.
The Electrochemical Society is a learned society (professional association) based in the United States that supports scientific inquiry in the field of electrochemistry and solid-state science and technology.

Chemical reaction

reactionchemical reactionsreactions
Chemical reactions where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions.
An important class of redox reactions are the electrochemical reactions, where electrons from the power supply are used as the reducing agent.

Quantum electrochemistry

By the 1960s–1970s quantum electrochemistry was developed by Revaz Dogonadze and his pupils.
Generally speaking, the field comprises the notions arising in electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, and electrochemistry; and so is studied by a very large array of different professional researchers.

Fritz Haber

HaberF. HaberFritz Harber
In 1898, Fritz Haber showed that definite reduction products can result from electrolytic processes if the potential at the cathode is kept constant.
In 1897 Haber made a similar trip to learn about developments in electrochemistry.

Salt bridge

salt bridging
To further minimize mixing of the electrolytes, a salt bridge can be used which consists of an electrolyte saturated gel in an inverted U-tube.
A salt bridge, in electrochemistry, is a laboratory device used to connect the oxidation and reduction half-cells of a galvanic cell (voltaic cell), a type of electrochemical cell.

Standard electrode potential

standard potentialstandard cell potentialstandard reduction potentials
To allow prediction of the cell potential, tabulations of standard electrode potential are available.
In electrochemistry, standard electrode potential is defined as the measure of the individual potential of reversible electrode at standard state with ions at an effective concentration of 1mol dm-3 at the pressure of 1 atm.

Electroplating

electroplateelectroplatedelectrodeposition
Soon thereafter Ritter discovered the process of electroplating.
Modern electrochemistry was invented by Italian chemist Luigi Valentino Brugnatelli in 1805.

Electrolysis

electrolyticelectrolyzedelectrolyze
When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electric current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction.
The carbon/hydrocarbon assisted water electrolysis (so-called CAWE) process for hydrogen generation would perform this operation in a single electrochemical reactor.

Electrode potential

Cell voltagecell potentialE'' 0
Here n is the number of electrons/mole product, F is the Faraday constant (coulombs/mole), and ΔE is cell potential.
Electrode potential, E, in chemistry or electrochemistry, according to a IUPAC definition, is the electromotive force of a cell built of two electrodes:

Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
He also observed that the amount of metal deposited and the amount of oxygen produced during an electrolytic process depended on the distance between the electrodes.
Electrodes for chemical analysis using electrochemical methods

Mercury (element)

mercuryquicksilverHg
Later results revealed that alloying the amalgamated zinc with mercury would produce a higher voltage.
Liquid mercury is a part of popular secondary reference electrode (called the calomel electrode) in electrochemistry as an alternative to the standard hydrogen electrode.

Thermodynamic free energy

free energyfree energiesfree-energy
In 1889, he showed how the characteristics of the current produced could be used to calculate the free energy change in the chemical reaction producing the current.
Work other than p dV may be added, e.g., for electrochemical cells, or f dx work in elastic materials and in muscle contraction.

Galvanic cell

voltaic cellgalvaniccells
By the 1810s, William Hyde Wollaston made improvements to the galvanic cell.
Galvanic corrosion is a process that degrades metals electrochemically.

Oxidation state

oxidation numberoxidation statesoxidation
The term "redox" stands for reduction-oxidation. It refers to electrochemical processes involving electron transfer to or from a molecule or ion changing its oxidation state.
*Electrochemical oxidation state; it represents a molecule or ion in the Latimer diagram or Frost diagram for its redox-active element.

Fluid theory of electricity

fluidstwo-fluid theorytwo-fluid theory'' of electricity
This was the two-fluid theory of electricity, which was to be opposed by Benjamin Franklin's one-fluid theory later in the century.
History of electrochemistry