Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Illustration of a Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in a school laboratory
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Hall-Heroult process for producing aluminium
Lithium floating in oil
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.

Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

- Lithium

1821 – Lithium was discovered by the English chemist William Thomas Brande, who obtained it by electrolysis of lithium oxide.

- Electrolysis
Atomic structure of Lithium-7

3 related topics

Alpha

The flame test of potassium.

Potassium

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

It was suspected in 1702 that they were distinct elements that combine with the same anions to make similar salts, and this was proven in 1807 through using electrolysis.

Potassium is the second least dense metal after lithium.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.

Sodium

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

Sodium was first isolated by Humphry Davy in 1807 by the electrolysis of sodium hydroxide.

Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium.

Various cells and batteries (top left to bottom right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt (PP3), two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery

Electric battery

Source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices.

Source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices.

Various cells and batteries (top left to bottom right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt (PP3), two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery
A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge that permits the transfer of ions.
From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt 3R12 battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery, a 9-volt PP3 battery, and a pair of button cells (CR2032 and LR44)
Line art drawing of a dry cell: 1. brass cap, 2. plastic seal, 3. expansion space, 4. porous cardboard, 5. zinc can, 6. carbon rod, 7. chemical mixture
A device to check battery voltage
An analog camcorder [lithium ion] battery
Battery after explosion
Leak-damaged alkaline battery

The high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds give lithium cells emfs of 3 volts or more.

Such batteries produce hydrogen, which is very explosive, when they are overcharged (because of electrolysis of the water in the electrolyte).