Electron

electronse − electron massfree electronsmass of an electrone − e'' − electricityElectron conductivityElectron relative atomic mass
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.wikipedia
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Electric charge

chargechargedelectrical charge
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
There are two types of electric charges; positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively).

Lepton

leptonsantileptondilepton
Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.
Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos).

Electron diffraction

diffraction of electronselectronelectrons
Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light.
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.

Elementary particle

elementary particlesparticleparticles
Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.
As the 1930s opened, the electron and the proton had been observed, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.

Pauli exclusion principle

exclusion principlePauli principleexclusion rule
As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
In the case of electrons in atoms, it can be stated as follows: it is impossible for two electrons of a poly-electron atom to have the same values of the four quantum numbers: n, the principal quantum number,, the angular momentum quantum number, m, the magnetic quantum number, and m s, the spin quantum number.

Electronics

electronicelectronic deviceelectronic equipment
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.

Electron microscope

electron microscopyelectron microscopeselectron
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

Proton

protonspH +
The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
At sufficiently low temperatures, free protons will bind to electrons.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields.
Positive charges in ions are achieved by stripping away electrons orbiting the atomic nuclei, where the total number of electrons removed is related to either increasing temperature or the local density of other ionized matter.

Nuclear physics

nuclear physicistnuclearnuclear scientist
Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics.
Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons.

Quantum state

eigenstatepure statestate
As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
For example, when dealing with the energy spectrum of the electron in a hydrogen atom, the relevant state vectors are identified by the principal quantum number

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus.

Elementary charge

eelectron chargecharge
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge

Chemistry

chemistchemicalChemical Sciences
Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics. Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
The nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons (together called nucleons), while the electron cloud consists of negatively charged electrons which orbit the nucleus.

Electron-beam welding

electron beam weldingelectron beamelectron beam welded
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
Electron-beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to two materials to be joined.

Beta particle

betabeta radiationbeta ray
Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation (symbol β), is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

J. J. Thomson

Joseph John ThomsonSir J. J. ThomsonThomson
Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.

George Johnstone Stoney

George StoneyStoney, George Johnstone
Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.
He is most famous for introducing the term electron as the "fundamental unit quantity of electricity".

Fermion

fermionsfermionichalf-integer spin
As it is a fermion, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
A fermion can be an elementary particle, such as the electron, or it can be a composite particle, such as the proton.

Radionuclide

radioisotoperadioisotopesradionuclides
Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere.
This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus.

Beta decay

β + beta emissionbeta
Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) is emitted from an atomic nucleus.

Fundamental interaction

fundamental forcesfundamental forcefundamental interactions
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
The electromagnetic force, carried by the photon, creates electric and magnetic fields, which are responsible for the attraction between orbital electrons and atomic nuclei which holds atoms together, as well as chemical bonding and electromagnetic waves, including visible light, and forms the basis for electrical technology.

Electron–positron annihilation

electron-positron annihilationpositron annihilationannihilation
When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.
Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (, the electron's antiparticle) collide.

Weak interaction

weak forceweakweak nuclear force
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
The fermions involved in such exchanges can be either elementary (e.g. electrons or quarks) or composite (e.g. protons or neutrons), although at the deepest levels, all weak interactions ultimately are between elementary particles.

Atomic nucleus

nucleusnucleiatomic nuclei
The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
An atom is composed of a positively-charged nucleus, with a cloud of negatively-charged electrons surrounding it, bound together by electrostatic force.