Electron

electronse − electron massfree electronsmass of an electron2e − e − e'' − electricityElectron conductivity
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.wikipedia
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Electric charge

chargeelectrical chargecharged
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
There are two types of electric charge: positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively).

Lepton

leptonsantileptondilepton
Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.
Two main classes of leptons exist, charged leptons (also known as the electron-like leptons), and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos).

Electron diffraction

diffraction of electronselectronconvergent beam electron diffraction
Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light.
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.

Elementary particle

elementary particlesparticleparticles
Electrons belong to the first generation of the lepton particle family, and are generally thought to be elementary particles because they have no known components or substructure.
Subatomic constituents of the atom were identified in the early 1930s; the electron and the proton, along with the photon, the particle of electromagnetic radiation.

Pauli exclusion principle

Pauli principleexclusion principlePauli's exclusion principle
Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
In the case of electrons in atoms, it can be stated as follows: it is impossible for two electrons of a poly-electron atom to have the same values of the four quantum numbers: n, the principal quantum number,, the azimuthal quantum number, m, the magnetic quantum number, and m s, the spin quantum number.

Chemistry

chemistchemicalApplied Chemistry
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics.
There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions (cations and anions); hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force bonds.

Electronics

electronicelectronic equipmentelectronic device
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter.

Plasma (physics)

plasmaplasma physicsplasmas
Laboratory instruments are capable of trapping individual electrons as well as electron plasma by the use of electromagnetic fields.
It consists of a gas of ions – atoms which have some of their orbital electrons removed – and free electrons.

Electron microscope

electron microscopyelectron microscopeselectron
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.

Proton

protonsH + p
The electron has a mass that is approximately 1/1836 that of the proton. The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
At sufficiently low temperatures, free protons will bind to electrons.

Subatomic particle

subatomicparticlesubatomic particles
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

Quantum state

eigenstatepure stateeigenstates
Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
For example, when dealing with the energy spectrum of the electron in a hydrogen atom, the relevant state vectors are identified by the principal quantum number

Nuclear physics

nuclear physicistnuclearnuclear science
Interactions involving electrons with other subatomic particles are of interest in fields such as chemistry and nuclear physics.
Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
The Coulomb force interaction between the positive protons within atomic nuclei and the negative electrons without, allows the composition of the two known as atoms.
Every atom is composed of a nucleus and one or more electrons bound to the nucleus.

Electron-beam welding

electron beam weldingelectron beamelectron beam welded
Electrons are involved in many applications such as electronics, welding, cathode ray tubes, electron microscopes, radiation therapy, lasers, gaseous ionization detectors and particle accelerators.
Electron-beam welding (EBW) is a fusion welding process in which a beam of high-velocity electrons is applied to two materials to be joined.

Beta particle

betabeta radiationbeta particles
Electrons can also participate in nuclear reactions, such as nucleosynthesis in stars, where they are known as beta particles.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation (symbol β), is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

Fermion

fermionsFermionichalf-integer spin
Being fermions, no two electrons can occupy the same quantum state, in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle.
A fermion can be an elementary particle, such as the electron, or it can be a composite particle, such as the proton.

J. J. Thomson

J.J. ThomsonJoseph John ThomsonSir J. J. Thomson
Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron, the first subatomic particle to be discovered.

George Johnstone Stoney

George StoneyG. Johnstone StoneyG. J. Stoney
Irish physicist George Johnstone Stoney named this charge 'electron' in 1891, and J. J. Thomson and his team of British physicists identified it as a particle in 1897.
He is most famous for introducing the term electron as the "fundamental unit quantity of electricity".

Radionuclide

radioisotoperadioisotopesradionuclides
Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere.
This excess energy can be used in one of three ways: emitted from the nucleus as gamma radiation; transferred to one of its electrons to release it as a conversion electron; or used to create and emit a new particle (alpha particle or beta particle) from the nucleus.

Weak interaction

weak forceweakweak nuclear force
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
The fermions involved in such exchanges can be either elementary (e.g. electrons or quarks) or composite (e.g. protons or neutrons), although at the deepest levels, all weak interactions ultimately are between elementary particles.

Beta decay

β + beta emissionbeta
Electrons can be created through beta decay of radioactive isotopes and in high-energy collisions, for instance when cosmic rays enter the atmosphere.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (fast energetic electron or positron) is emitted from an atomic nucleus, transforming the original nuclide to an isobar.

Fundamental interaction

fundamental forcesfundamental forcefundamental interactions
Electrons play an essential role in numerous physical phenomena, such as electricity, magnetism, chemistry and thermal conductivity, and they also participate in gravitational, electromagnetic and weak interactions.
The electromagnetic force, carried by the photon, creates electric and magnetic fields, which are responsible for the attraction between orbital electrons and atomic nuclei which holds atoms together, as well as chemical bonding and electromagnetic waves, including visible light, and forms the basis for electrical technology.

Electron–positron annihilation

electron-positron annihilationpositron annihilationannihilation
When an electron collides with a positron, both particles can be annihilated, producing gamma ray photons.
Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (, the electron's antiparticle) collide.

Elementary charge

eelectron chargecharge
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
The elementary charge, usually denoted by e or sometimes q e, is the electric charge carried by a single proton or, equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge −1 e. This elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant.