A report on FluorescenceLight and Electron

Fluorescent minerals emit visible light when exposed to ultraviolet light.
A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) are separated.
Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.
Fluorescent marine organisms
The electromagnetic spectrum, with the visible portion highlighted
A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field
Fluorescent clothes used in black light theater production, Prague
J. J. Thomson
Lignum nephriticum cup made from the wood of the narra tree (Pterocarpus indicus), and a flask containing its fluorescent solution
Beam of sun light inside the cavity of Rocca ill'Abissu at Fondachelli-Fantina, Sicily
Robert Millikan
Matlaline, the fluorescent substance in the wood of the tree Eysenhardtia polystachya
Due to refraction, the straw dipped in water appears bent and the ruler scale compressed when viewed from a shallow angle.
The Bohr model of the atom, showing states of an electron with energy quantized by the number n. An electron dropping to a lower orbit emits a photon equal to the energy difference between the orbits.
Jablonski diagram. After an electron absorbs a high-energy photon the system is excited electronically and vibrationally. The system relaxes vibrationally, and eventually fluoresces at a longer wavelength.
Hong Kong illuminated by colourful artificial lighting.
In quantum mechanics, the behavior of an electron in an atom is described by an orbital, which is a probability distribution rather than an orbit. In the figure, the shading indicates the relative probability to "find" the electron, having the energy corresponding to the given quantum numbers, at that point.
Fluorescent security strip in a US twenty dollar bill under UV light
Pierre Gassendi.
Standard Model of elementary particles. The electron (symbol e) is on the left.
Fluorescent coral
Christiaan Huygens.
Example of an antisymmetric wave function for a quantum state of two identical fermions in a 1-dimensional box. If the particles swap position, the wave function inverts its sign.
Fluorescence has multiple origins in the tree of life. This diagram displays the origins within actinopterygians (ray finned fish).
Thomas Young's sketch of a double-slit experiment showing diffraction. Young's experiments supported the theory that light consists of waves.
A schematic depiction of virtual electron–positron pairs appearing at random near an electron (at lower left)
Fluorescent marine fish
A particle with charge q (at left) is moving with velocity v through a magnetic field B that is oriented toward the viewer. For an electron, q is negative so it follows a curved trajectory toward the top.
Aequoria victoria, biofluorescent jellyfish known for GFP
Here, Bremsstrahlung is produced by an electron e deflected by the electric field of an atomic nucleus. The energy change E2 − E1 determines the frequency f of the emitted photon.
Fluorescent polka-dot tree frog under UV-light
Probability densities for the first few hydrogen atom orbitals, seen in cross-section. The energy level of a bound electron determines the orbital it occupies, and the color reflects the probability of finding the electron at a given position.
Fluorescing scorpion
A lightning discharge consists primarily of a flow of electrons. The electric potential needed for lightning can be generated by a triboelectric effect.
Fluorescence of aragonite
Lorentz factor as a function of velocity. It starts at value 1 and goes to infinity as v approaches c.
Fluorescent paint and plastic lit by UV tubes. Paintings by Beo Beyond
Pair production of an electron and positron, caused by the close approach of a photon with an atomic nucleus. The lightning symbol represents an exchange of a virtual photon, thus an electric force acts. The angle between the particles is very small.
Endothelial cells under the microscope with three separate channels marking specific cellular components
An extended air shower generated by an energetic cosmic ray striking the Earth's atmosphere
Aurorae are mostly caused by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere.
During a NASA wind tunnel test, a model of the Space Shuttle is targeted by a beam of electrons, simulating the effect of ionizing gases during re-entry.

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

- Fluorescence

While studying naturally fluorescing minerals in 1896, the French physicist Henri Becquerel discovered that they emitted radiation without any exposure to an external energy source.

- Electron

Stimulating light excites an electron to an excited state.

- Fluorescence

Deceleration of a free charged particle, such as an electron, can produce visible radiation: cyclotron radiation, synchrotron radiation and bremsstrahlung radiation are all examples of this.

- Light

Certain substances produce light when they are illuminated by more energetic radiation, a process known as fluorescence.

- Light

In his 1924 dissertation Recherches sur la théorie des quanta (Research on Quantum Theory), French physicist Louis de Broglie hypothesized that all matter can be represented as a de Broglie wave in the manner of light.

- Electron
Fluorescent minerals emit visible light when exposed to ultraviolet light.

2 related topics with Alpha



Electromagnetic radiation

1 links

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, propagating through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, propagating through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

Shows the relative wavelengths of the electromagnetic waves of three different colours of light (blue, green, and red) with a distance scale in micrometers along the x-axis.
In electromagnetic radiation (such as microwaves from an antenna, shown here) the term "radiation" applies only to the parts of the electromagnetic field that radiate into infinite space and decrease in intensity by an inverse-square law of power, so that the total radiation energy that crosses through an imaginary spherical surface is the same, no matter how far away from the antenna the spherical surface is drawn. Electromagnetic radiation thus includes the far field part of the electromagnetic field around a transmitter. A part of the "near-field" close to the transmitter, forms part of the changing electromagnetic field, but does not count as electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This 3D animation shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right. The electric and magnetic fields in such a wave are in-phase with each other, reaching minima and maxima together.
Representation of the electric field vector of a wave of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation.
James Clerk Maxwell
Electromagnetic spectrum with visible light highlighted
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric absorption and scattering (or opacity) of various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation

It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Later the particle of light was given the name photon, to correspond with other particles being described around this time, such as the electron and proton.

Immediate photon emission is called fluorescence, a type of photoluminescence.

Natural color x-ray photogram of a wine scene


1 links

Penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.

Penetrating form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.

Natural color x-ray photogram of a wine scene
Example of a Crookes tube, a type of discharge tube that emitted X-rays
Wilhelm Röntgen
Hand mit Ringen (Hand with Rings): print of Wilhelm Röntgen's first "medical" X-ray, of his wife's hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and presented to Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s. The Crookes tube is visible in center. The standing man is viewing his hand with a fluoroscope screen. The seated man is taking a radiograph of his hand by placing it on a photographic plate. No precautions against radiation exposure are taken; its hazards were not known at the time.
Surgical removal of a bullet whose location was diagnosed with X-rays (see inset) in 1897
Images by James Green, from "Sciagraphs of British Batrachians and Reptiles" (1897), featuring (from left) Rana esculenta (now Pelophylax lessonae), Lacerta vivipara (now Zootoca vivipara), and Lacerta agilis
1896 plaque published in "Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpetrière", a medical journal. In the left a hand deformity, in the right same hand seen using radiography. The authors named the technique Röntgen photography.
A patient being examined with a thoracic fluoroscope in 1940, which displayed continuous moving images. This image was used to argue that radiation exposure during the X-ray procedure would be negligible.
Chandra's image of the galaxy cluster Abell 2125 reveals a complex of several massive multimillion-degree-Celsius gas clouds in the process of merging.
Phase-contrast X-ray image of spider
X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with wavelengths shorter than UV light. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.
Ionizing radiation hazard symbol
Attenuation length of X-rays in water showing the oxygen absorption edge at 540 eV, the energy−3 dependence of photoabsorption, as well as a leveling off at higher photon energies due to Compton scattering. The attenuation length is about four orders of magnitude longer for hard X-rays (right half) compared to soft X-rays (left half).
Spectrum of the X-rays emitted by an X-ray tube with a rhodium target, operated at 60 kV. The smooth, continuous curve is due to bremsstrahlung, and the spikes are characteristic K lines for rhodium atoms.
Patient undergoing an x-ray exam in a hospital radiology room.
A chest radiograph of a female, demonstrating a hiatal hernia
Plain radiograph of the right knee
Head CT scan (transverse plane) slice – a modern application of medical radiography
Abdominal radiograph of a pregnant woman, a procedure that should be performed only after proper assessment of benefit versus risk
Each dot, called a reflection, in this diffraction pattern forms from the constructive interference of scattered X-rays passing through a crystal. The data can be used to determine the crystalline structure.
Using X-ray for inspection and quality control: the differences in the structures of the die and bond wires reveal the left chip to be counterfeit.
X-ray fine art photography of needlefish by Peter Dazeley

They were noticed by scientists investigating cathode rays produced by such tubes, which are energetic electron beams that were first observed in 1869.

He based it on the electromagnetic theory of light.

There are conflicting accounts of his discovery because Röntgen had his lab notes burned after his death, but this is a likely reconstruction by his biographers: Röntgen was investigating cathode rays from a Crookes tube which he had wrapped in black cardboard so that the visible light from the tube would not interfere, using a fluorescent screen painted with barium platinocyanide.