Electron diffraction

diffraction of electronselectronconvergent beam electron diffractionelectronsconvergent-beam electron diffractiondiffracteddiffraction of electrons by crystalselectron sourcesLorentz microscopytransmission electron diffraction
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.wikipedia
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Electron

electronse − electron mass
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons. However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the resulting interference pattern.
Like all elementary particles, electrons exhibit properties of both particles and waves: they can collide with other particles and can be diffracted like light.

Gas electron diffraction

gas-phase electron diffractiongaseous molecules
Apart from the study of "periodically perfect" crystals, i.e. electron crystallography, electron diffraction is also a useful technique to study the short range order of amorphous solids, short-range ordering of imperfections such as vacancies, the geometry of gaseous molecules, and the properties of short-range ordering of vacancies.
Gas electron diffraction (GED) is one of the applications of electron diffraction techniques.

Electron backscatter diffraction

EBSDcrystal orientationOrientation imaging microscopy
Experiments are usually performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), or a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as electron backscatter diffraction.
Traditionally these types of studies have been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction and/or electron diffraction in a Transmission electron microscope.

Wave–particle duality

wave-particle dualityparticle theory of lightwave nature
This phenomenon is commonly known as wave–particle duality, which states that a particle of matter (in this case the incident electron) can be described as a wave.
De Broglie's formula was confirmed three years later for electrons with the observation of electron diffraction in two independent experiments.

George Paget Thomson

George ThomsonSir George Paget ThomsonGeorge P. Thomson
At the University of Aberdeen, George Paget Thomson and his colleague A Reid passed a beam of electrons through thin film of celluloid and observed the predicted interference patterns.
Sir George Paget Thomson, FRS (3 May 1892 – 10 September 1975) was an English physicist and Nobel laureate in physics recognised for his discovery of the wave properties of the electron by electron diffraction.

Clinton Davisson

Clinton Joseph DavissonClinton J. DavissonDavisson
Around the same time at Bell Labs, Clinton Joseph Davisson and Lester Halbert Germer guided their beam through a crystalline grid.
Clinton Joseph Davisson (October 22, 1881 – February 1, 1958) was an American physicist who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson-Germer experiment.

Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
Around the same time at Bell Labs, Clinton Joseph Davisson and Lester Halbert Germer guided their beam through a crystalline grid.
Bell researcher Clinton Davisson shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with George Paget Thomson for the discovery of electron diffraction, which helped lay the foundation for solid-state electronics.

Transmission electron microscopy

transmission electron microscopeTEMTransmission
Experiments are usually performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), or a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as electron backscatter diffraction.
In convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) where a non-parallel, i.e. converging, electron wavefront is produced by concentrating the electron beam into a fine probe at the sample surface, the interaction of the convergent beam can provide information beyond structural data such as sample thickness.

Structure factor

static structure factorderivedextinction rules
Here is the wavefunction of the diffracted beam and is the so-called structure factor which is given by:
The structure factor is a critical tool in the interpretation of scattering patterns (interference patterns) obtained in X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction experiments.

Atomic form factor

form factoratomic scattering factorneutron form factor
where \mathbf{g} is the scattering vector of the diffracted beam, is the position of an atom i in the unit cell, and f_i is the scattering power of the atom, also called the atomic form factor.
The atomic form factor depends on the type of scattering, which in turn depends on the nature of the incident radiation, typically X-ray, electron or neutron.

X-ray crystallography

X-ray diffractionprotein crystallographyX-ray
This technique is similar to X-ray and neutron diffraction.

Diffraction

diffraction patterndiffractdiffracted
Working back from the observed diffraction pattern, it may be possible to deduce the structure of the crystal producing the diffraction pattern.
Bragg diffraction may be carried out using either electromagnetic radiation of very short wavelength like X-rays or matter waves like neutrons (and electrons) whose wavelength is on the order of (or much smaller than) the atomic spacing.

Neutron diffraction

neutronneutron crystallographydiffraction
This technique is similar to X-ray and neutron diffraction.

Linus Pauling

PaulingLinus Carl PaulingLinus C. Pauling
The method of gas electron diffraction (GED) has been developed in the laboratories of BASF company in the 1930s by Herman Mark and Wierl and was broadly introduced into structure elucidation in chemistry by Linus Pauling.
After returning, he built an electron diffraction instrument at Caltech with a student of his, Lawrence Olin Brockway, and used it to study the molecular structure of a large number of chemical substances.

Kikuchi line (solid state physics)

Kikuchi lineKikuchi linesElectron channeling pattern
Kikuchi lines pair up to form bands in electron diffraction from single crystal specimens, there to serve as "roads in orientation-space" for microscopists not certain what they are looking at.

Precession electron diffraction

precession technique
Precession electron diffraction (PED) is a specialized method to collect electron diffraction patterns in a transmission electron microscope (TEM).

University of Aberdeen

Aberdeen UniversityAberdeenThe University of Aberdeen
At the University of Aberdeen, George Paget Thomson and his colleague A Reid passed a beam of electrons through thin film of celluloid and observed the predicted interference patterns.

Reflection high-energy electron diffraction

RHEEDreflection high energy electron diffractionMCP-RHEED
Transmission electron microscopy, another common electron diffraction method samples the bulk of the sample due to the geometry of the system.

Electron microscope

electron microscopyelectron microscopeselectron
Transmission electron microscopes are often used in electron diffraction mode.

Stereographic projection

stereographicLittle planet effectstereographically projected
In crystallography, the orientations of crystal axes and faces in three-dimensional space are a central geometric concern, for example in the interpretation of X-ray and electron diffraction patterns.

Wave interference

interferenceconstructive interferencedestructive interference
However, from a technical or practical point of view, it may be regarded as a technique used to study matter by firing electrons at a sample and observing the resulting interference pattern.

Crystal structure

unit celllatticecrystal lattice
Electron diffraction is most frequently used in solid state physics and chemistry to study the crystal structure of solids.

Scanning electron microscope

scanning electron microscopySEMScanning electron micrograph
Experiments are usually performed in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), or a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as electron backscatter diffraction.

Diffraction grating

gratinggratingsgrating equation
The periodic structure of a crystalline solid acts as a diffraction grating, scattering the electrons in a predictable manner.