Electron transfer

electron-transfertransferelectrontransfer of electronscharge transferelectron exchangeElectron transfer reactionselectron-transfer reactionselectronsheterogeneous electron transfer
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.wikipedia
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Redox

oxidationreductionoxidized
ET is a mechanistic description of a redox reaction, wherein the oxidation state of reactant and product changes.
Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.

Marcus theory

theory of electron transfer reactionselectron solvationelectron transfer theory
A key concept of Marcus theory is that the rates of such self-exchange reactions are mathematically related to the rates of "cross reactions".
Marcus theory is a theory originally developed by Rudolph A. Marcus, starting in 1956, to explain the rates of electron transfer reactions – the rate at which an electron can move or jump from one chemical species (called the electron donor) to another (called the electron acceptor).

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.
The strongest bonds are formed by the sharing or transfer of electrons between atoms, allowing the formation of molecules.

Coordination complex

coordination chemistrycomplexcomplexes
ET reactions commonly involve transition metal complexes, but there are now many examples of ET in organic chemistry.
A common reaction between coordination complexes involving ligands are inner and outer sphere electron transfers. They are two different mechanisms of electron transfer redox reactions, largely defined by the late Henry Taube. In an inner sphere reaction, a ligand with two lone electron pairs acts as a bridging ligand, a ligand to which both coordination centres can bond. Through this, electrons are transferred from one centre to another.

Outer sphere electron transfer

outer-sphere electron transferouterouter sphere
The first generally accepted theory of ET was developed by Rudolph A. Marcus to address outer-sphere electron transfer and was based on a transition-state theory approach.
Outer sphere refers to an electron transfer (ET) event that occurs between chemical species that remain separate and intact before, during, and after the ET event.

Electrochemical reaction mechanism

reaction mechanismselectrocatalysiselectrochemical
Electrochemical reaction mechanism
In chemistry, an electrochemical reaction mechanism is the step by step sequence of elementary steps, involving at least one outer sphere electron transfer, by which an overall chemical change occurs.

Metalloprotein

metalloenzymemetalloenzymesmetalloproteins
Before 1991, ET in metalloproteins was thought to affect primarily the diffuse, averaged properties of the non-metal atoms forming an insulated barrier between the metals, but Beratan, Betts and Onuchic subsequently showed that the ET rates are governed by the bond structures of the proteins -- that the electrons, in effect, tunnel through the bonds comprising the chain structure of the proteins.
This functionality is used in cytochromes, which function as electron-transfer vectors.

Rudolph A. Marcus

MarcusRudolph MarcusRudy Marcus
The first generally accepted theory of ET was developed by Rudolph A. Marcus to address outer-sphere electron transfer and was based on a transition-state theory approach.

Noel Hush

Emeritus Professor Noel Hush AO DSc FRS FNAS FAA FRACI Dist FRSNNoel Sydney Hush
The Marcus theory of electron transfer was then extended to include inner-sphere electron transfer by Noel Hush and Marcus.
* Electron transfer

Electron equivalent

Electron equivalent
Electron equivalent is a concept commonly used in redox chemistry, reactions involving electron transfer, to define a quantity (e.g. energy or moles) relative to one electron.

Atom

atomsatomic structureatomic
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.

Molecule

moleculesmolecularmolecular structure
Electron transfer (ET) occurs when an electron relocates from an atom or molecule to another such chemical entity.

Biological process

biological processesbiologicalprocess
Numerous biological processes involve ET reactions.

Photosynthesis

photosyntheticphotosynthesizephotosynthesizing
These processes include oxygen binding, photosynthesis, respiration, and detoxification.

Cellular respiration

respirationaerobic respirationaerobic
These processes include oxygen binding, photosynthesis, respiration, and detoxification.

Energy

energiesenergy transfertotal energy
Additionally, the process of energy transfer can be formalized as a two-electron exchange (two concurrent ET events in opposite directions) in case of small distances between the transferring molecules.

Organic chemistry

organicorganic chemistorganic chemical
ET reactions commonly involve transition metal complexes, but there are now many examples of ET in organic chemistry.

Ligand

ligandsligand exchangebidentate ligand
In this case the chloride ligand is the bridging ligand that covalently connects the redox partners.

Degenerate energy levels

degeneratedegeneracydegeneracies
As an example, self-exchange describes the degenerate reaction between permanganate and its one-electron reduced relative manganate:

Permanganate

MnO 4 − MnO 4 permanganate ion
As an example, self-exchange describes the degenerate reaction between permanganate and its one-electron reduced relative manganate:

Manganate

Manganate(VI)manganic acidMnO 4
As an example, self-exchange describes the degenerate reaction between permanganate and its one-electron reduced relative manganate:

Iodide

II − iodides
One example (of many thousands) is the reduction of permanganate by iodide to form iodine and, again, manganate.

Iodine

II 2 iodinated
One example (of many thousands) is the reduction of permanganate by iodide to form iodine and, again, manganate.

Electrode

electrodescathodemicroelectrode
In heterogeneous electron transfer, an electron moves between a chemical species and a solid-state electrode.

Electrochemistry

electrochemicalelectrochemistelectrochemical reaction
Theories addressing heterogeneous electron transfer have applications in electrochemistry and the design of solar cells.