Electronic music

electronicelectronic musicianelectroelectronicaelectronicsMusicianProgressive electronicelectronic-musicelectronic art musicelectronic dance music
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology.wikipedia
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Electronic dance music

EDMdanceelectronic dance
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, and turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, krautrock, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music.
Electronic dance music, also known as EDM, dance music, club music or simply dance, is a broad range of percussive electronic music genres made largely for nightclubs, raves and festivals.

Synth-pop

synthpopelectropopsynth pop
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, and turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, krautrock, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM.
It was prefigured in the 1960s and early 1970s by the use of synthesizers in progressive rock, electronic, art rock, disco, and particularly the "Krautrock" of bands like Kraftwerk.

Electroacoustic music

electroacoustictapeelectro-acoustic
In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means (electroacoustic music), and that produced using electronics only.
The initial developments in electroacoustic music composition to fixed media during the 20th century are associated with the activities of the Groupe de Recherches Musicales at the ORTF in Paris, the home of musique concrète, the Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR) studio in Cologne, where the focus was on the composition of elektronische Musik, and the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in New York City, where tape music, electronic music, and computer music were all explored.

New wave music

new wavenew-wavenew wave revival
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, and turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, krautrock, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM.
New wave moved away from blues and rock and roll sounds to create rock music (early new wave) or pop music (later) that incorporated disco, mod, and electronic music.

Dub music

dubdub reggaedubs
In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, and Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music.
It was an early form of popular electronic music.

Computer music

computercomputer generated musiccomputers
Devices such as the theremin, synthesizer, and computer can produce electronic sounds.
The field of computer music can trace its roots back to the origins of electronic music, and the very first experiments and innovations with electronic instruments at the turn of the 20th century.

Roland TR-808

808TR-808808 drums
In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, and the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303.
Launched when electronic music had yet to become mainstream, the 808 received mixed reviews for its unrealistic drum sounds and was a commercial failure.

Musique concrète

musique concreteconcrete musicmusic concrete
Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds.
Compositions in this idiom are not restricted to the normal musical rules of melody, harmony, rhythm, metre, and so on. Originally contrasted with "pure" elektronische Musik (based solely on the production and manipulation of electronically produced sounds rather than recorded sounds), the theoretical basis of musique concrète as a compositional practice was developed by Pierre Schaeffer, beginning in the early 1940s.

Experimental music

experimentalavant-gardeexperimentalism
Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music.
In France, as early as 1953, Pierre Schaeffer had begun using the term musique expérimentale to describe compositional activities that incorporated tape music, musique concrète, and elektronische Musik.

Edgard Varèse

VarèseEdgar VarèseVarèse, Edgard
The instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse.
Varèse saw potential in using electronic media for sound production, and his use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the "Father of Electronic Music" while Henry Miller described him as "The stratospheric Colossus of Sound".

Halim El-Dabh

El-Dabh
In 1944, prior to the use of magnetic tape for compositional purposes, Egyptian composer Halim El-Dabh, while still a student in Cairo, used a cumbersome wire recorder to record sounds of an ancient zaar ceremony.
He is particularly known as an early pioneer of electronic music.

Karlheinz Stockhausen

StockhausenStockhausen, KarlheinzControversy
Karlheinz Stockhausen worked briefly in Schaeffer's studio in 1952, and afterward for many years at the WDR Cologne's Studio for Electronic Music.
He is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance (aleatory techniques or aleatoric musical techniques) into serial composition, and for musical spatialization.

Computer Music Center

Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music CenterElectronic Music LaboratoryNew York
While his initial experiments in tape-based composition were not widely known outside of Egypt at the time, El-Dabh is also known for his later work in electronic music at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center in the late 1950s.
The Computer Music Center (CMC) at Columbia University is the oldest center for electronic and computer music research in the United States.

Minimoog

Mini Moogmini-moogMoog Voyager
In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
It was first popular with progressive rock and jazz musicians and found wide use in disco, pop, rock and electronic music.

Studio for Electronic Music (WDR)

Studio for Electronic MusicElectronic Music StudioWDR Electronic Music Studio
Karlheinz Stockhausen worked briefly in Schaeffer's studio in 1952, and afterward for many years at the WDR Cologne's Studio for Electronic Music.
It was the first of its kind in the world, and its history reflects the development of electronic music in the second half of the twentieth century.

Cosmic Pulses

More recently, Stockhausen turned to producing electronic music in his own studio in Kürten, his last work in the medium being Cosmic Pulses (2007).
Cosmic Pulses is the last electronic composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, and it is number 93 in his catalog of works.

Pierre Schaeffer

SchaefferClub d’essaiSchaeffer, Pierre
Following his work with Studio d'Essai at Radiodiffusion Française (RDF), during the early 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer is credited with originating the theory and practice of musique concrète.
Amongst the vast range of works and projects he undertook, Schaeffer is most widely and currently recognized for his accomplishments in electronic and experimental music, at the core of which stands his role as the chief developer of a unique and early form of avant-garde music known as musique concrète.

Disco

disco musicdisco eraanti-disco backlash
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, and turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, krautrock, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM.
In 1977, Summer released "I Feel Love", which combined disco with its subgenre Hi-NRG and electronic music, was a massive worldwide success.

Bebe and Louis Barron

Bebe BarronLouis and Bebe Barron
The group had no permanent facility, and had to rely on borrowed time in commercial sound studios, including the studio of Louis and Bebe Barron.
Bebe Barron (June 16, 1925 – April 20, 2008) and Louis Barron (April 23, 1920 – November 1, 1989) were two American pioneers in the field of electronic music.

Hymnen

Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester
"With Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel in residence, it became a year-round hive of charismatic avante-gardism [sic]" on two occasions combining electronically generated sounds with relatively conventional orchestras—in Mixtur (1964) and Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester (1967).
Hymnen (German for "Anthems") is an electronic and concrete work, with optional live performers, by Karlheinz Stockhausen, composed in 1966–67, and elaborated in 1969.

Pierre Henry

HenryHenry, PierrePsico Rock
Not long after this, Pierre Henry began collaborating with Schaeffer, a partnership that would have profound and lasting effects on the direction of electronic music.
Pierre Georges Henry (9 December 1927 – 5 July 2017) was a French composer, considered a pioneer in the musique concrète genre of electronic music.

Toru Takemitsu

TakemitsuTōru TakemitsuTakemitsu, Tōru
Following the foundation of electronics company Sony in 1946, composers Toru Takemitsu and Minao Shibata independently explored possible uses for electronic technology to produce music.
In 1948, Takemitsu conceived the idea of electronic music technology, or in his own words, to "bring noise into tempered musical tones inside a busy small tube."

Williams Mix

Williams Mix was a success at the Donaueschingen Festival, where it made a "strong impression".
Williams Mix (1951–1953) is a 4'15" electronic composition by John Cage for eight simultaneously played independent quarter-inch magnetic tapes. The first octophonic music, the piece was created by Cage with the assistance of Earle Brown, Morton Feldman, and David Tudor, using a large number of tape sound sources and a paper score he created for the construction. "Presignifying the development of algorithmic composition, granular synthesis and sound diffusion," it was the third of five pieces completed in the Project for Music for Magnetic Tape (1951–1954), funded by dedicatee architect Paul Williams.

Orchestra

symphony orchestraorchestralchamber orchestra
"With Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel in residence, it became a year-round hive of charismatic avante-gardism [sic]" on two occasions combining electronically generated sounds with relatively conventional orchestras—in Mixtur (1964) and Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester (1967). They were typically used within orchestras, and most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments.
Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments.

Synthesizer

synthesizerssynthsynths
Devices such as the theremin, synthesizer, and computer can produce electronic sounds. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, and the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303.
After World War II, electronic music including electroacoustic music and musique concrète was created by contemporary composers, and numerous electronic music studios were established around the world, especially in Cologne, Paris and Milan.