Electronic switching system

switching systemselectronic switchingdigital exchange telecommunications systemdigital switchingelectronic switcheselectronic telephone exchangesESSESS-2switchestelephone-switching station
In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses solid-state electronics, such as digital electronics) and computerized control, to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.wikipedia
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Stored program control

Stored Program Control exchangecomputer controlcomputerized
The first generation of electronic switching systems in the 1960s were not entirely digital in nature, but used reed relay-operated metallic paths or crossbar switches operated by stored program control (SPC) systems.
SPC was the enabling technology of electronic switching systems (ESS) developed in the Bell System in the 1950s, and may be considered the third generation of switching technology.

Number One Electronic Switching System

1ESS switch1ESS1AESS
The first large-scale electronic switching system was the Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) of the Bell System, cut over in Succasunna, New Jersey, in May 1965.
The Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) was the first large-scale stored program control (SPC) telephone exchange or electronic switching system in the Bell System.

Morris, Illinois

MorrisMorris, IL
First announced in 1955, the first customer trial installation of an all-electronic central office commenced in Morris, Illinois in November 1960 by Bell Laboratories.
In early 1960, the world's first electronic switching system was installed at the Morris central office.

Telephone exchange

exchangescentral officeexchange
First announced in 1955, the first customer trial installation of an all-electronic central office commenced in Morris, Illinois in November 1960 by Bell Laboratories. In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses solid-state electronics, such as digital electronics) and computerized control, to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.
Electronic switching systems gradually evolved in stages from electromechanical hybrids with stored program control to the fully digital systems.

Telephony

digital telephonytelephonedigital
The adoption of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) and pulse-code modulation (PCM) technologies in the 1970s led to the transition from analog to digital telephony.
Following the development of computer-based electronic switching systems incorporating metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) and pulse-code modulation (PCM) technologies, the PSTN gradually evolved towards the digitization of signaling and audio transmissions.

5ESS Switching System

5ESS switch5ESS5ESS Switch project
The 5ESS Switching System is a Class 5 telephone electronic switching system developed by Western Electric for the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) and the Bell System in the United States.

Pulse-code modulation

PCMLPCMLinear PCM
The adoption of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) and pulse-code modulation (PCM) technologies in the 1970s led to the transition from analog to digital telephony.
By the 1990s, telecommunication networks such as the public switched telephone network (PSTN) had been largely digitized with very-large-scale integration (VLSI) CMOS PCM codec-filters, widely used in electronic switching systems for telephone exchanges, user-end modems and a wide range of digital transmission applications such as the integrated services digital network (ISDN), cordless telephones and cell phones.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses solid-state electronics, such as digital electronics) and computerized control, to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.

Solid-state electronics

solid statesolid-statesolid state electronics
In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses solid-state electronics, such as digital electronics) and computerized control, to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.

Digital electronics

digital circuitdigitaldigital technology
In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses solid-state electronics, such as digital electronics) and computerized control, to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.

Computerize

computerizedcomputerizing
In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses solid-state electronics, such as digital electronics) and computerized control, to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.

Electromechanics

electromechanicalelectro-mechanicalElectromechanical Engineering
The generations of telephone switches before the advent of electronic switching in the 1950s used purely electro-mechanical relay systems and analog voice paths.

Stepping switch

uniselectorstepping relayuniselectors
These early machines typically utilized the step-by-step technique.

Reed relay

ferreedremreedCrossReed
The first generation of electronic switching systems in the 1960s were not entirely digital in nature, but used reed relay-operated metallic paths or crossbar switches operated by stored program control (SPC) systems.

Crossbar switch

crossbarcross-bar switchcrossbar interconnect
The first generation of electronic switching systems in the 1960s were not entirely digital in nature, but used reed relay-operated metallic paths or crossbar switches operated by stored program control (SPC) systems.

Illinois

ILState of IllinoisIll.
First announced in 1955, the first customer trial installation of an all-electronic central office commenced in Morris, Illinois in November 1960 by Bell Laboratories.

Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
First announced in 1955, the first customer trial installation of an all-electronic central office commenced in Morris, Illinois in November 1960 by Bell Laboratories.

Bell System

Bell Operating CompanyBell Operating CompaniesBell Telephone
The first large-scale electronic switching system was the Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) of the Bell System, cut over in Succasunna, New Jersey, in May 1965.

Succasunna-Kenvil, New Jersey

SuccasunnaSuccasunna-KenvilKenvil
The first large-scale electronic switching system was the Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) of the Bell System, cut over in Succasunna, New Jersey, in May 1965.

New Jersey

NJState of New JerseyJersey
The first large-scale electronic switching system was the Number One Electronic Switching System (1ESS) of the Bell System, cut over in Succasunna, New Jersey, in May 1965.

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductorMOSMOS integrated circuit
The adoption of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) and pulse-code modulation (PCM) technologies in the 1970s led to the transition from analog to digital telephony.

Local loop

subscriber lineloopsubscriber loop
Later electronic switching systems implemented the digital representation of the electrical audio signals on subscriber loops by digitizing the analog signals and processing the resulting data for transmission between central offices.

Time-division multiplexing

TDMtime division multiplexingtime slot
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology permitted the simultaneous transmission of multiple telephone calls on a single wire connection between central offices or other electronic switches, resulting in dramatic capacity improvements of the telephone network.

Public switched telephone network

PSTNpublic telephone networktelephone network
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology permitted the simultaneous transmission of multiple telephone calls on a single wire connection between central offices or other electronic switches, resulting in dramatic capacity improvements of the telephone network.